Combined Bachelor's + Master's degree in Medicine and Surgery

Combined Bachelor's + Master's degree in Medicine and Surgery

General and Clinical Pathophysiology

Course code
Academic sector

Learning outcomes

The main tasks of the course is to illustrate the molecular mechanisms responsible for cell and tissue damage, as well as involved in host responses to pathogen invasion and in repair. In addition, the course addresses pathophysiological mechanisms at the basis of alterations of the main homeostatic systems, compensation responses induced by these alterations, and their potential significance as mechanisms of diseases.

Objectives of the course of General Pathology

The aim of this course is to provide the students with the molecular mechanisms underlying pathological processes concerning essential cell and tissue functions, and the consequent injury-induced tissue repair. The course addresses classical examples of molecular alterations affecting subcellular organelles, cells and tissues. Additionally, complex alterations occurring at the organism level (aging, diabetes, steatosis) are described. In the context of cell damage, particular attention is given to alterations of signal transduction and cell transformation. This latter phenomenon is addressed in the more general context of cancer cell biology and consequences of tumor growth at the organism level. Mechanisms of host defenses against pathogens, and reaction to tissue injury are described in great detail, both in terms of cells involved and molecular mechanisms. Acute and chronic inflammation are addressed in the context of their causes, their cellular and molecular mechanisms, and their interaction with the immune response.

Objectives of the course of clinical pathophysiology:

Aim of the course is to present the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the main alterations of the homeostatic systems, functional consequences on various organs and systems, describing the compensation mechanisms that are activated as a result of these changes, and how they may themselves represent the pathophysiological mechanisms of disease. The following topics will specifically be addressed:
1 alterations of fluid and electrolyte balance;
2 alterations of the acid-base balance;
3 alterations of renal function;
4 impairment of cardiac function;
5 regulation of vascular tone and alterations in blood pressure homeostasis;
6 impaired respiratory function and hypoxia;
7 alterations of liver function;
8 disorders of haemostasis and thrombosis;
9 alteration of formation and propagation of cardiac electric impulse

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