Bachelor's degree in Radiology Techniques for Imaging and Radiotherapy (to qualify as a medical radiology technician) (Verona)


Course code
Name of lecturer
Diego Cavalli
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Academic sector
Language of instruction
Lezioni 2A 2 semestre TSRM dal Apr 19, 2021 al Jun 11, 2021.

To show the organization of the course that includes this module, follow this link * Course organization

Lesson timetable

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Learning outcomes

During the course will be provided basic knowledge to understand the dynamics of Macroscopic Magnetization (MM) and the genesis of the signal during the application of radio-frequency pulses and gradients. We will analyze the path that produces the signal composed to the creation of a raw data in its real and imaginary forms, the filling and the structure of the relative matrices and their reconstruction with the Fourier transform. With the acquired knowledge, the main K-space filling trajectories, the basic time diagrams of the pulse sequences and the scanning parameters necessary to understand the main sequences implemented on the RM machines will be described. Subsequently, the advanced applications and technological innovations implemented on the most modern RM machines will be described.
At the end of the course the learners must be able to define and describe:
- Pulse sequences implemented on the main RM scanners currently on the market.
- The main technological innovations related to K-space filling techniques, saturation techniques and image acquisition techniques.

The final aim of the course is to create the basic knowledge on RM imaging technologies, giving the tools to understand and interpret the technical applications of an pulse sequence and the K-space associated with it.


MRI techniques and protocols

1- General Physics concepts:
• Nuclei and spin
• Magnetic resonance phenomenon
• Static Magnetic Field
• Radiofrequencies (RF)
• Longitudinal Macroscopic Magnetization
• Transverse Macroscopic Magnetization
• Free Induction Decay (FID)

2- Signal parameters:
• Bloch Equation
• Spin – lattice relaxation
• T1 relaxation
• T2 relaxation
• T2 * relaxation
• Proton density (DP)
• Chemical Shift (1st and 2nd)

3- K-space
• Field gradients (G-XYZ)
• Static field (B0) and RF pulses (B1)
• Spatial signal coding
• K-Space (Real, Imaginary and characteristics)
• Fourier Transformation (Anti-Transformation)

4- Parameters of the MRI sequences:
• Repetition Time (TR)
• Echo time (TE)
• Inversion time (TI)
• Field of view (FOV)
• Sliceloop time
• Delay time
• NON-Square FOV
• Spatial encodings (Z-Y-Z)
• Thickness and distances of the slices
• Matrix Size (READ / PHASE)
• Means
• Concatenations
• Oversampling
• Interpolation
• Resolution
• BASE Resolution
• Partial Fourier
• Parallel Imaging
• Flip Angle
• Bandwidth (BW)
• Zero Filling
• Matrix

5- Sequences:
• Radiofrequency Refocused Echo - Conventional SE, Point resolved SE, Multi contrast SE, Rapid acquisition SE, High speed SE
• Gradient Recalled Echo - Conventional GRE (FID imaging), Rapid acquisition GRE (FID Imaging, SSFP FID, SSFP ECHO, SSFP FID + ECHO), Multi contrast GRE, High speed GRE

6- Suppression techniques:
• No-Chemical Shift: Inversion Recovery (IR)
• Chemical shift: CHESS, CHESS-IR (RF Conventional, RF Adiabatic), Water Excitation, Dixon method (2-3 Point),

7- K-Space filling techniques:
• Two-dimensional technique
• Three-dimensional technique
• Multislice technique
• Filling geometries
• Sequential geometry
• Radial geometry (or polar)
• Parallel Imaging

8- MRI artifacts and their resolutions:
• Blurring
• Ghost
• Zipper
• Central Point
• B0 inhomogeneities
• Gradient distortion
• Motion artifacts
• Chemical shift artifacts
• Magic Angle
• Parallel Imaging
• 2D-3D Aliasing
• GIBBS truncation
• Moire Fringers

9- Technological innovations:
• Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)
• Diffusion Imaging (DWI)
• Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Fiber Tracking
• Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
• Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL)

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Matt A. Bernstein, Kevin F. King, and Xiaohong Joe Zhou Handbook of MRI Pulse Sequences (Edizione 1) Elsevier 2004 978-0-12-092861-3
Donald W. McRobbie, Elizabeth A. Moore, Martin J. Graves, Martin R. Prince MRI From Picture to Proton (Edizione 1) Cambridge University 2007 1139457195
Alessandro Carriero, Stefano Colagrande, Maria Cova, Mario Mascalchi, Valeria Panebianco, Gabriele Palonara, Tommaso Scarabino e Angelo Vanzulli Syllabus - Risonanza Magnetica di base (Edizione 2) Poletto Editore 2004 888678676X
Joseph P. Hornak The Basics of MRI (Edizione 1) Copyright © 1996-2016 J.P. Hornak All Rights Reserved 1996
Wolfgang R. Nitz, Val M. Runge, Miguel Trelles, Frank Goemer The Physics of Clinical MR Taught Through Images (Edizione 3) Thieme Medical Publishers 2014 9781604067200

Assessment methods and criteria

The final Test is written.
- 50 questions with multiple choices
- 5 answers for each question
- Correct answer =1
- Wrong answer or not given answer = 0
- To pass the exam the minimum number of right answer is 30
- The QUIZ will be projected or uploaded on a specific web platform (30 seconds for each question)

If the TEST is exceeded, a short oral examination will be done, to verify the understanding and logic of various concepts.

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