Bachelor's degree in Obstetrics (to qualify as an obstetrician)

Morphological and functional fundamentals of life - ISTOLOGIA ED EMBRIOLOGIA

Course code
Name of lecturer
Raffaella Mariotti
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Academic sector
Language of instruction
1° ANNO 1° Semestre dal Oct 1, 2019 al Dec 8, 2019.

To show the organization of the course that includes this module, follow this link * Course organization

Lesson timetable

Go to lesson schedule

Learning outcomes

The aim of the course is to allow the student to Know and understand the structural organization of the cell and tissues and the knowledge on human embryonic development.
At the end of the course the student must be able to:
1) Recognize and describe the structural of the cell, assigning to each component its specific function;
2) Describe the concept of cell differentiation and correlate the cell morphology with their functional activity.
3) Recognize and describe the main human body tissues.
4) Describe the main stages of gametogenesis, fecundation and the first 4 weeks of the embryo gestation.


1) Introduction and methods:
• Order of magnitude of biological structures object of study in histology
• Enlarging of the objects and the resolution of the enlarged images
• Optical microscopes and electron microscopes
• Development of a histological preparation: fixing, cutting, coloring
2) Cytology:
• Structure and function of the plasma membrane (transport, ion channels and receptors)
• Structure of the nucleus, the nucleolus and nuclear membrane
• Structure and function of the following cytoplasmic organelles: endoplasmic reticulum,Golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes.
• Mitosis and meiosis
• Notes on cell differentiation
3) Histology
• epithelial tissue
• cytological features
• exocrine glands: classification and their cytological features
• endocrine glands: cytological characters
• Muscle tissue:
• skeletal muscle
• heart muscle
• smooth muscle
• Nervous tissue:
• cytological characters of the neuron
• myelin sheaths
• the neuroglia cells
• synapses
• Mesenchymal tissues (connective tissues in the broadest sense):
• Blood and lymph
• Connective tissue:
Adipose tissue
• cartilage tissues:
• hyaline cartilage
• elastic cartilage
• fibrous cartilage
• Bone tissues:
• Bone non-lamellar
• Bone lamellar
• membranous and chondral ossification
• Blood Tissue and blood cells
• Red blood cells
• White blood cells
• platelets
• plasma
• hematopoietic tissue
4. Embryology
• oogenesis and spermatogenesis
• reproduction
•week 1: morulazione, blastocyst and implantation
•week 2: formation of the germinal bilaminar disc
• Week 3: gastrulation, formation of germinal trilaminar disc

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Armato e Coll Embriologia umana Idelson-Gnocchi 2012
Di Primio e Coll Istologia Umana Idelson-Gnocchi 2017

Assessment methods and criteria

The oral exam includes two questions, one concerning the cytology/histology program and the other concerning the embryology program.
In order to pass the exam , each question concerning a specific program topic must be answered with competence and preparation deemed at least sufficient and evaluated in 18/30.

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