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This course aims to introduce the students to the comprehension of the biochemical processes essential for both cell and organism functions. The student will need to acquire the necessary knowledges to the understanding to the chemical transformations, essential requirement for the study of the structure-function relationships of the biological macromolecules and of metabolism. This will be correlated to specific features of molecules and of metabolic pathways involved in physical exercise.
Carbohydrates. Monosaccharides. natural oligosaccharides. Polysaccharides. Glycogen. Lipids. The fatty acids. The triglycerides. Lipid membrane phospholipids. Cholesterol. Biological membranes. Nucleotides. Structure and functions of nucleotides. Coenzymes. The adenylic nucleotides. Nucleic acids. Proteins. The amino acids. Peptide bond. Structural levels of proteins. Myoglobin and hemoglobin. Myosin and actin. Structure of thick and thin filaments. The antibodies. Collagen. Keratin.
Enzymes. Chemical reactions and reaction speed. Coenzymes: functional significance and relationship to water-soluble vitamins. Energy biochemistry. biochemical compounds with bonds to high energy content and accoppiate.Metabolismo reactions. Generality of catabolism and anabolismo.Metabolismo carbohydrates. Digestion of carbohydrates. Glycolysis. formation of lactate. Glycogenolysis. Krebs cycle. Gluco (neo) genesis. Glycogen synthesis. Pentose phosphate pathway. Glucose metabolism during exercise. Lipid metabolism. Digestion of fats. Role of carnitine. Catabolism of fatty acids: in beta oxidation of fatty acids. Formation of ketone bodies: physiological significance and their effect on the acid-base. Metabolism of cholesterol and cholesterol; LDL and HDL. Synthesis of fatty acids. Essential fatty acids. lipid metabolism during exercise. Metabolism of proteins. Protein digestion. General amino acid catabolism. Transamination and oxidative deamination of glutamate. urea cycle. Fate of the amino acid skeleton: glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids. protein metabolism during exercise. respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Catabolism energy balance of glucides, lipids and proteins. Hormones and fat-soluble vitamins. Outline about the mechanisms of action. Muscle metabolism and interrelationships with other tissues. Myofibrillar proteins and regulatory proteins. muscle contraction. energy sources of the muscle cell. The function of phosphocreatine. aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. sources of energy during muscle activity. Muscle glycogen. Interrelations with the liver. The Cori cycle. The glucose-alanine cycle. energy needs of the neuron. Ketone bodies and muscle protein as energy sources.
Bertoldi, Colombo, Magni, Marin, Palestini, CHIMICA e BIOCHIMICA, EDISES, 2015
written and oral