Combined Bachelor's + Master's degree in Medicine and Surgery

Gynecological endocrinology  (Corso Elettivo)

Course code
Name of lecturer
Paolo Moghetti
Paolo Moghetti
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Academic sector
Language of instruction
2° semestre dal Feb 22, 2021 al May 28, 2021.

Lesson timetable

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Learning outcomes

The aim of this course is to provide medical students with theoretical and practical tools in order to broaden their knowledge of some endocrinological issues (menstrual dysfunction, hyperandrogenism), which are of special interest to both endocrinologists and gynecologists.
These conditions are extremely common, their prevalence being at least 10% among women of reproductive age. Moreover, these alterations may have a number of relevant medical implications, including quality of life, reproduction and, later in life, a potential increase in cardiovascular risk.
At the end of the course students should know:
- The main aspects of the menstrual cycle physiology;
- The different abnormalities underlying menstrual cycle dysfunction, and how to investigate these alterations;
- In particular, how to diagnose the polycystic ovary syndrome and how to investigate the associated clinical abnormalities, with brief notes on the therapeutic approach;
- The pathophysiology of hirsutism, the available diagnostic tools, and the potential therapeutic strategies for this condition.
Desirable preparatory knowledge includes physiology, pharmacology, endocrinology and metabolic diseases, and obstetrics and gynecology. The course is for 4th-6th year medical students only.


1. Pathophysiology of the menstrual cycle: physiology of the reproductive cycle in women, diseases underlying menstrual dysfunction, investigations to assess these alterations.
2. Pathophysiology of hyperandrogenism. Etiology and clinical features of androgen excess. Diagnostic workup of hyperandrogenism. Brief summary of available tools for the treatment of hyperandrogenism.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Short background on diagnosis, epidemiology, pathophysiology, medical implications and potential late complications of PCOS. Brief summary of potential strategies for the treatment of PCOS.
4. Clinical cases of menstrual dysfunction and/or hyperandrogenism. Interactive discussion on the appropriate diagnostic workup.
5. Clinical cases of menstrual dysfunction and/or hyperandrogenism. Clinical practice (where possible).

Assessment methods and criteria

Assessment is based on participation of the student to the scheduled lessons.

Recommended period of frequency: 4th-6th year

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