Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Legnago)

Pathophysiology applied at Nursing (2020/2021)

Course code
4S000090
Credits
9
Coordinator
Laura Cuzzolin

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE 2 BIO/14-PHARMACOLOGY INF LE 1° ANNO 2° SEM Laura Cuzzolin
SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA 2 MED/09-INTERNAL MEDICINE INF LE 1° ANNO 2° SEM Francesco Bertoldo
INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA 3 MED/45-NURSING See the unit page See the unit page
PATOLOGIA GENERALE 2 MED/04-EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY INF LE 1° ANNO 2° SEM Carlo Laudanna

Syllabus

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MM: FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE
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GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY Definition of drug, medicinal product, generic drug, biosimilar, galenic and magistral preparations. Origin of drugs and the process of drug development. The market of drugs in Italy. Leaflet of a drug. Off-label use. International Classification System of drugs. Defined Daily Dose (DDD). Symptomatic, curative, preventive and substitutive drugs. Different actions of drugs: systemic or local, direct or indirect, primary or secondary, collateral, early or late onset. Pharmacokinetics: absorption (mechanisms, routes of administration, formulations), distribution (plasma protein binding, tissue vascularization, blood-brain barrier and placental transfer of drugs), biotransformation reactions and excretion of drugs. Pharmacokinetic parameters: bioavailability, volume of distribution, elimination half-life,clearance. Pharmacodynamics: general mechanisms of action, receptor definition, drug-receptor interaction,agonism and antagonism, affinity and intrinsic activity of drugs. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AND TOXICOLOGY Clinical risks related to drug use: therapeutic errors and classification of adverse drug reactions. Pharmacovigilance: spontaneous reporting and the role of nurse. Drug dependence. Embryo-fetal toxicity. PHARMACOTHERAPY The concepts of risk/benefit and cost/benefit applied to drug treatments. “Placebo” and “Compliance” definitions. Dosage, maximum dose, effective dose, posology, therapeutic index. Therapeutic plasma levels of drugs, peak concentrations, therapeutic range, accumulation, toxic concentrations. Therapeutic drug monitoring. Drug interactions. Variability in drug response: therapeutic problems in neonates and children, elderly, patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency. Antimicrobial therapy: selective toxicity, spectrum of action, bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity, microbial resistance. Pharmacological characteristics and adverse effects of the most important groups of antibiotics, antifungals and antivirals. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and paracetamol.
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MM: SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA
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- concept of cellular homeostasis - physiopathology of the hemopoietic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary and cardiovascular apparatuses
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MM: INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA
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------------------------ MM: Infermieristica clinica 1 ------------------------ Urinary phaseout: the signs and symptoms more frequent in urination and major alterations a) assessment of urinary function and diagnostic procedures b) urinary tract infection (UTI) c) chronic and acute urinary retention: care interventions and acute management protocol d) care management of people with bladder catheter Pressure ulcers - Prevention - Treatment ------------------------ MM: Infermieristica clinica 2 ------------------------ 1) Objective examination: methods, concept of head-to-feet evaluation 2) Intestinal elimination: the most frequent signs and symptoms in intestinal disorders and the main alterations 3) Breathing: general assessment and definition of the main alterations; oxygen therapy 4) Pain: a method to ascertain acute and chronic pain
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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The program in brief They will be explained: The general concepts of illness, disease and etio-pathology; the cell-based disease; oncology elements; immunity and inflammation Detailed program 1) Generalities a) Introduction to general pathology: fields and discipline purposes b) The disease: definition; causes (determinants, adjuvants, occasional); pathogenesis; course (recurrence, relapse); outcomes (healing, chronic, death); diagnosis (signs and physical examination, symptoms and medical history). 2) Cell pathology a) General concepts: the disease as the expression of cell damage? b) Degenerative changes of the cells: Causes (genetic, nutritional, from chemical, physical, from lack of oxygen, by living agents). reversible cell damage, irreversible cell death. morphological cell changes related to the damage: various aspects of degeneration and necrosis c) Modifications to steady-state cell: stationary phones were molecular changes (hypertrophy, atrophy, atrophy) and their causes cellular changes (hyperplasia, hypoplasia, aplasia) and their causes d) Alterations of cellular differentiation processes: Metaplasia, anaplasia, dysplasia 3) Oncology Definition of neoplastic cells, benign and malignant tumors, Natural history of cancer: advancement, growth, progress, general effects on body. Metastasis 4) Inflammation a) General concepts: utility of the inflammatory process b) Acute inflammation: local and general manifestations of inflammation; causes; pathogenetic mechanisms (vascular component, the white blood cell component and the chemical mediators). The exudate and types of inflammation (erythema, serous, catarrhal, purulent, fibrinous, hemorrhagic, necrotizing). The consequences on 'body (abscess, phlegmon, fistula, adhesion, synechiae, payments). c) Chronic inflammation: Causes; pathogenetic mechanisms; granuloma and granulomatous diseases.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE
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Learning evaluation of the topics related to general pharmacology is made inside the written exam of "Pathophysiology applied at Nursing": 15 questions with multiple-choice answers (2 correct between 5) or semi-structured are provided.
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MM: SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA
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Written multiple choices test
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MM: INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA
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------------------------ MM: Infermieristica clinica 1 ------------------------ Written test ------------------------ MM: Infermieristica clinica 2 ------------------------ written exam with closed questions with multiple choice answers and / or open questions with short answer
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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Written examination with questions with multiple answers.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Marina Vanzetta Roberto Leone Maurizio Volterrani Farmaci e infermiere. Un prontuario per la somministrazione McGraw-Hill Education 2013
Taglialatela Conforti Cuzzolin Leone Mattioli Moretti Pignataro Vanzetta Farmacologia per le lauree triennali e magistrali II Edizione (Edizione 2) Sorbona 2019
Luisa Saiani, Anna Brugnolli Trattato di cure infermieristiche (Edizione 2) Sorbona 2014
Clark M.A., Finkel R., Rey J.A., Whalen K. Le basi della farmacologia Zanichelli 2013 978-88-08-18864-9
Pontieri GM Patologia e Fisiopatologia Generale Piccin Editore, Padova 2002
PONTIERI-RUSSO-FRATI PATOLOGIA GENERALE (Edizione 3) PICCIN 2005


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