Postgraduate Specialisation in Internal Medicine

Human Physiology

Course code
Name of lecturer
Carlo Capelli
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Other available courses
Academic sector
Language of instruction
not yet allocated

Learning outcomes

The purpose of these lectures/seminars is to illustrate the factors thhat determine stoke volume and cardiac output in situ will be described with particular attention to heterometric and homeometric regulation of the development of myocardial active tension.


Topics of Lecture #1
1.0 The mechanical events of the cardiac cycle
1.1 Electro-mechanical coupling
1.2 Cardiac events - the Wigger diagram
1.3 Cardiac events - right heart and left heart
1.4 Heart sounds
2.0 The venous pulse
3.0 P-V curve of isolated left ventricle
3.1 Transparietal pressure and Laplace's law
3.2 Laplace's law during the ejection
3.3 Laplace's law: practical consequences
4.0 Pressures in the pulmonary circulation
4.1 Pressures in the right-left heart
5.0 Anatomic-functional correlates
Topics of Lecture #2
6.0 The cardiac output
6.1 CO-control regulation of HR
6.2 ANS and pacemaker cells
7.0 Stroke volume
8.0 Starling's law-heterometric regulation of the VE
8.1 Relationship between VTD and pressure
8.2 Strength myocardial muscle length curve –
8.3 Myocardial muscle vs. skeletal muscle tension-length curve
8.4 Tension - speed curve
8.5 Tension curve - speed and preload
8.6 Tension curve – speed, preload and cardiac performance
9.0 Ventricular function curve
9.1 Heart failure
10.0 Frank-Starling in the heart in situ
10.1 Importance of the Frank-Starling law in vivo: example
11.0 Preload vs. Afterload
11.1 Frank – Starling and afterload
12.0 Right heart-left heart interaction
Topics of Lecture #3
13.0 Homeometric adjustment of VE
13.1 Sympathetic stimulation, contractility and VE
13.2 Cardiac Function and Contractility in vivo
13.2 Sympathetic effects on myocardial contractility
13.3 Effects of ANS stimulation on the myocardium
14.0 Contractility and heart rate
15.0 In summary
16.0 Inotropic agents
17.0 Adjustment of CO-Summary
18.0 Important Formulas
19.0 Cardiac function in vivo-Ejection fraction
19.1 Cardiac function and contractility in vivo
20.0 Measurement of cardiac output

Reference books

See the teaching bibliography

Assessment methods and criteria

Self - evaluation test with Kahoot

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