Postgraduate Specialisation in Maxillofacial Surgery

Oral pathologies 3

Course code
Name of lecturer
Massimo Albanese
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Academic sector
Language of instruction
not yet allocated

Learning outcomes

At the end of the course the student must have acquired the following knowledge in the field of diseases of the oral mucosa, soft tissues, salivary glands and jaw bones: - know the main biological, genetic and molecular processes that underlie the onset of diseases by integrating the pathophysiological and pathological study with clinical methodology; - be able to perform an examination of the patient: take a correct anamnesis (including medical history), conduct objective examination of the oral cavity; - be able to: recognize conditions other than normal, recognize elementary or characteristic lesions, follow correct reasoning that allows you to request or carry out procedures for the diagnosis of the main pathological conditions or know how to refer to another expertise when necessary; - know and record diseases according to the classifications accepted by the international community; - know the drugs directly and indirectly correlated with the therapy of these diseases and understand the implications of the pharmacological therapy of systemic diseases regarding dental therapies; - be able to carry out appropriate therapies (or refer to other expertise when necessary), recognize and correctly manage oral manifestations of systemic or psychiatric diseases (or refer to other expertise when necessary); evaluate the patient's general health and the relationships between other diseases and diseases of the oral cavity and modulate the dental treatment plan accordingly; identify treatment priorities in line with needs; - be able to carry out screening and early diagnosis activities for oral diseases including cancer; - be able to develop an interdisciplinary approach to the clinical case, also and above all in collaboration with other figures of the healthcare team, deepening the knowledge of the rules and dynamics that characterize the work of the group of healthcare professionals. Training objectives in the odontostomatological field: knowledge of the anatomical structures of the oral cavity, of the main etiopathogenetic mechanisms of pathologies of odontostomatological interest of an infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune, preneoplastic, neoplastic, benign and malignant nature. The course allows you to acquire knowledge relating to the clinical, laboratory and instrumental manifestations of the main pathologies of odontostomatological interest and their correlations at a systemic level. The student will be able to learn the main diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of the most relevant odontostomatological pathologies in the context of the preservation and care of the health of the oral cavity. Training objectives in the neoplastic odontostomatology field: acquire the skills necessary for correct identification and possible treatment of the most common benign and malignant pathologies that can affect the soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. These skills must also be used for primary and secondary preventive purposes. In particular, you will be asked to: - carry out an adequate medical history with specific attention also to behavioral habits and pharmacological therapies - carry out an adequate clinical examination of the oral cavity - know and interpret the main diagnostic methods available (ultrasound, CT, MRI, needle aspiration , biopsy, cytological examination, histological examination, biohumoral tests) - set up a treatment plan whether medical or surgical Training objectives in the field of odontostomatological prevention: recognize the risk factors with a view to primary prevention of carious pathology, periodontal pathology, of oncological pathology and bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis through adequate medical history collection. The student will also have to identify early lesions in the context of oral cavity tumors or precancerous conditions, carious and periodontal pathology with a view to secondary prevention.


CRANIAL-MAXILLOFACIAL ANATOMY The skeletal structure of the facial mass with particular reference to the mandibular, maxillary anatomy, upper airways, oral cavity, pharynx. THE MACROAREAS OF THE ORAL CAVITY (notes of anatomy) Lips - Vestibule - Dental arches - Hard palate - Soft palate - Oropharynx - Floor of the oral cavity - The tongue - The labial and lingual frenulum - The major and minor salivary glands CRANIOFACIAL AND LABIOPALATOURANOSCHISIS GROWTH Notes on craniofacial growth and the formation of the palate Difference between cleft lip, cleft lip and palate and cleft lip and palate Timing of reconstruction and notes on treatment Pierre Robin syndrome NORMOCCLUSION AND MALOCCLUSION Tooth anatomy Overbite and Overject Tooth classes Transverse discrepancy (cross bite) Vertical discrepancies (bite scissor bite, open bite) Sagittal discrepancies (anterior cross-bite, class II, class III) Dental discrepancies (crowding) Notes on the etiology of malocclusions (genetic causes, traumatic factors, physical factors, bad habits, atypical swallowing, pathological factors) ANATOMOPATHOLOGY of the Oral Cavity Pigmented lesions (Macula, Tattoo) Erosive lesions (Erosion, Ulcer, Fistula) Expansive lesions (Wheal, Plaque, Scar, Papule, Nodule, Vesicle, Bubble, Pustule, Cyst) CHEILITIS C. exfoliativa-C. glandular-C. apostematosa-C. granulomatosa-C. angular-C. actinic-C. viral-C.traumatica-Lipomas of the tongue-(Fordyce's granules) GLOSSOPATHIES Bifid tongue and ankyloglossia-L. fissurata-L. to geographical map-L. bianca villosa-L. nigra villosa - Hairy tongue - Glossopathies due to vitamin deficiency (iron, folates, vitamins), Median rhombic glossitis - ODONTOSTOMATOLOGICAL PATHOLOGIES Infectious pathologies: Herpes Simplex, Scarlet fever, Tuberculosis, Papilloma of the tongue, Syphilis, Candidiasis Pathologies of immune origin: Graft versus Host Disease - Drug intolerance Other: high flow AVM, low flow AVM, XII cranial nerve palsy ORAL CAVITY CARCINOMA Early diagnosis - Differences between ulcerated lesions (aphtha, traumatic ulcer, neoplastic ulcer) - Etiological factors - Rate of survival-Treatment: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy Reconstructive surgery: microsurgical flaps (radial flap, fibula flap, scapula flap) ORAL CAVITY CARCINOMA: CLINICAL CASES Reconstruction of the maxilla (obturator prosthesis, regional sliding flaps, revascularized flaps) Reconstruction of the mandible (fibula flap, iliac crest flap) Reconstruction of the tongue (direct closure, radial flap)

Reference books

See the teaching bibliography

Assessment methods and criteria

interview to verify the knowledge acquired. Session to be held in person/online during the last lesson of the course

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