To show the organization of the course that includes this module, follow this link Course organization
The course aims to provide the cognitive basis for understanding the contribution of biological macromolecules to the biological organization and functioning of structures of living organisms and to the most important aspects of human biology. Teaching also seeks out the basic concepts of genetics, the most common genetic diseases, and their transmission modes. At the end of the course, the student must demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the basics of biology also in relation to the health status of the human population.
Main characteristics of living organisms, cell structures of prokaryotes and eukaryotes; the structure of viral particles; cell cycle and its regulation; reproduction and development; molecular mechanisms of hereditary transmission of genetic information; the chromosomal basis of heredity, the human genome, Mendelian genetics, pedigrees, the gene mutations.
General characteristics of living organisms.
- Life macromolecules: DNA, RNA, proteins.
- Cell structure and function: general characteristics, separation of subcellular components. Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus.
- The molecular basis of hereditary information. DNA characteristics, Watson and Crick model. DNA replication.
- Gene expression. Genetic code, transcription, translation. Gene expression regulation.
- Genetics. Composition of the genome.
- Mutations: types and effects. Spontaneous mutations. Mutagenesis by chemical and physical agents.
- Genome Organization.
- Chromatin: composition and structure.
- Chromosomes: structural patterns, karyotype, anomalies.
- The cell cycle. Mitosis
- Sexual and meiosis reproduction. Gametogenesis. Meiotic Errors: Aneuploids. The gene dosage and inactivation of the X chromosome, the determination of sex in the embryo.
- Genetics. Transmission of hereditary characters, Mendel's laws. Genotype and phenotype, autosomal and sex-related inheritance. Interpretation and discussion of genealogical trees. Genetics of blood groups. Methods of transmission of genetic diseases in humans, calculation of risks. Molecular Diagnosis.
|Campbell et al.||Biologia e genetica||Pearson||2015|
|Sadava, Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker||Elementi di Biologia e Genetica (Edizione 5)||Zanichelli||2019|
|Bonaldo et al.||Elementi di Biologia e Genetica||EdiSES||2019||978-88-3319-038-9|
The assessment of learning outcomes envisages a written test to ensure knowledge of the topics under consideration.
The written test potentially covers all the topics listed in the program. It is articulated in groups of question-related to the main themes of the course (life macromolecules, cell biology, cell interactions, genetic information flow, mendelian inheritance, human genetics). Items are formulated as multiple answer questions and open answer questions. The answer to each item requires knowledge of biological terminology, ability to interpret genealogy trees, ability to systematically connect knowledge of biology and genetic molecules, ability to describe and exemplify biological structures.
The examination will be validated with a minimum score of 18/30.
The overall evaluation of the answers to the questions is expressed in thirty/30.
To help the student to understand the contents and the formulation of the items, the examination tests submitted in the previous year will be discussed in the classroom with the students of the following year.