Bachelor's degree in Dental Hygiene (Rovereto)

Pathology and general dentistry (2020/2021)

Course code
4S000294
Credits
6
Coordinator
Patrizia Scapini

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
ELEMENTI DI RADIODIAGNOSTICA PER IMMAGINI E RADIOPROTEZIONE 2 MED/36-IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY Lezioni 1 Anno 2 semestre CLID ROV Federica Spagnolli
PATOLOGIA ODONTOSTOMATOLOGICA 2 MED/28-ORAL DISEASES AND DENTISTRY Lezioni 1 Anno 2 semestre CLID ROV Vittorio Favero
PATOLOGIA GENERALE 2 MED/04-EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Lezioni 1 Anno 2 semestre CLID ROV Patrizia Scapini

Learning outcomes

Teaching aims to critically educate the student about the main etiopathogenic mechanisms of dental pathologies. To raise awareness of the mechanisms of cellular and molecular damage and the restorative reactions that this triggers with particular reference to the development of the inflammatory process and the repair of wounds, and to the mechanisms of hemostatic and repair of vascular damage. The main methods of diagnostic and molecular imaging in clinical use will be explained. The student will gain knowledge on the principles of radioprotection for both patients and operators on radiation interactions with matter and the side effects induced by ionizing radiation. ODONTOSTOMATOLOGIC PATHOLOGY MODULE Training objectives: The course aims to critically educate the student to the knowledge of the main etiopathogenic mechanisms of pathologies with an odontostomatologic interest of an infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune, pre-neoplastic, benign and malignant cancer. • Introduction to special dental pathology • Oral cavity diseases with infectious etiopathogenesis of the oral cavity • Oral mucosa diseases with autoimmunitary etiopathogenesis • Oral cavity diseases with floristic and/or reactive etopathogenesis • Oro-facial granulomatosis • Precancerous manifestations and squamocellular carcinoma of the oral cavity RADIODIAGNOSTICS ELEMENTS MODULE FOR IMAGES AND RADIOPROTECTION Training objectives: At the end of this lesson module, the student will be able to understand the main diagnostic and molecular imaging methods in clinical use. The student will gain useful insights into the main diagnostic investigations for images in dentistry, with particular regard to the physical principles of the energies used, the side effects, the way images are formed. Know the indications of the different investigations. Learn basic notions of anatomy and radiological semeiotics. Familiarize yourself with the imaging of diseases of greatest interest such as tooth decay, periapic lesions, cysts, tumors, traumatic injuries. The student will gain knowledge on the principles of radioprotection for both patients and operators on radiation interactions with matter and side effects induced by ionizing radiation, and how to behave accordingly. GENERAL PATHOLOGY MODULE Training objectives: The fundamental aim of the Pathology Course is the acquisition of conceptual and scientific tools to explain the causes and mechanisms of cellular and molecular damage and human diseases. The programme includes the main chemical, physical and biological pathogenic factors and their effects (biological damage) on living matter, cells and tissues, reactions to biological damage that are decisive in the healing/repair or pathology process, with particular reference to the mechanisms of immunity, inflammation, wound healing and chronicisation of pathological processes. The course aims to illustrate the reparing reactions that cellular and molecular damage triggers with particular reference to the development of the inflammatory process and wound repair, and to the hemostatic and repair mechanisms of vascular damage.

Syllabus

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MM: ELEMENTI DI RADIODIAGNOSTICA PER IMMAGINI E RADIOPROTEZIONE
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Medical Imaging: introduction. X rays. Image formation: esposition factors and radio-geometrics. X-rays detectors: analogical and digital. Image digitalization. Imaging techniques: orthopantomography, cephalometry, computed tomography, cone beam CT, ecography and magnetic resonance. Radiological anatomy. Imaging of pathology: caries, periapical lesions, cystic lesions, tumours, trauma. Temporo-mandibular joint imaging. Radioprotection in odontostomatology.
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MM: PATOLOGIA ODONTOSTOMATOLOGICA
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• Introduction to special odontostomatological disease • Macroscopic head / neck anatomy: oral cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx (pharynx liver-laryngitis), neck, vascularization and innervation of the head-to-neck structures • Macroscopic anatomy of the oral cavity: the superior of the horse, jaw, tongue, palate of the oral cavity, the oral floor, major salivary glands, dental apparatus, vascularization and innervation of the oral cavity, sinuses Jaws and paranasals. Microscopic anatomy: histological analysis of the constituent tissues of the oral cavity and its anomalies • Oral cavity diseases with oral cavity infectious etiopathogenesis: viruses (herpes viruses, coxsackie virus, human papilloma virus), bacteria (actinomycosis, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, syphilis), of mycoses (oral candidiasis). Focal infection theory. • Oral mucosa with autoimmune etiopathogens: recurrent apical stomatitis, Behcet syndrome, lichen planus, drug and amalgam lichenoid reactions, necrotic ulcerative stomatitis, multiforme erythema, penophicosis, penicillin, allergic contact stomatitis and oral allergic syndrome • Oral cavity disorders with flogistic and / or reactive etiopathogenesis: fibrous, pyogenic granuloma, peripheral gigantic cellular granuloma, peripheral ossification fibrous, fecal epidermis • Golden-facial granulomatous: pathogenesis of granulomatous diseases, Crohn's disease, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, sarcoidosis, foreign body granulomatous • Pre-cancerous manifestations and squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity: dysplasia and cellular atipia, leukoplakia, erythroplakia, chili aptitude, squamous cell carcinoma (etiopathogens, risk factors), oral cavity biopsy (timing and execution mode, reading of report
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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I. Introduction: - general concepts - the pathological process as an alteration of homeostasis - adaptation, compensation and responsiveness - pathogenesis - etiology II. Cellular Pathology: -cell death: necrosis and apoptosis - pathogenetic processes implicated in cellular damage III. Natural immunity and acquired immunity: - innate immune cells - adaptive immune cells IV. Tissue responses to cell damage: - acute inflammation: changes in flow and vascular permeability; - inflammatory exudates (types, composition, localization); - mechanisms controlling phagocyte migration to the inflammatory sites - effector functions of phagocytes: oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent bactericidal mechanisms, phagocytosis V. Mediators of acute inflammation: plasma-derived mediators and cell-derived mediators - coagulation system, complement system, vasoactive amines - cytokines VI. Evolution of the acute inflammatory response: -tissue repair, regeneration and fibrosis -chronic inflammation: chronic systemic diseases (ex. granuloma) VII. Neoplasms

Assessment methods and criteria

The evaluation consists of 3 written assignments (one for each Unit: General Pathology, , Elements of Radiodiagnostics for Images and Radioprotection, Odontostomatological pathology ) with multiple choice questions.
The specific evaluation criteria for each assignment are shown on the web page of each single Unit.
The exam is considered valid if a positive evaluation is achieved in each assignment.
The final grade is calculated as a weighted average of the grades achieved in each Unit.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Giuseppe Ficarra Manuale di Patologia e Medicina Orale (Edizione 3) McGraw-Hill 2006 88-386-2391-0
Pontieri G.M. Elementi di Patologia generale Piccin 2018
Emanuel Rubin, Howard M. Reisner Patologia Generale. L'essenziale Piccin 2015 978-88-299-2740-1


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