Bachelor's degree in Dental Hygiene (Rovereto)


Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
BIOCHIMICA 2 BIO/10-BIOCHEMISTRY TERP 1A1S Giovanni Gotte
BIOLOGIA APPLICATA 2 BIO/13-EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY Lezioni 1 Anno 1 semestre CLID ROV Elisabetta Trabetti

Learning outcomes

Teaching aims to provide knowledge of human biology in an evolutionary vision with particular reference to the molecular and cellular processes common to all living organisms, to raise awareness of the structures and functions of biological macromolecules and the main metabolic pathways in which they are involved. The student should be able to explain the cellular mechanisms underlying the functioning of the whole organism and grasp the pathogenic meaning of any alterations of them; it should also be able to recognize the different ways in which Mendelian characters are transmitted in humans and finally stimulate the student's interest in biomolecular sciences by giving maximum emphasis to the interconnections between biochemical processes and the energy variations associated with them. BIOCHEMICAL MODULE Training objectives: The course aims to present the relationship between the structure and function of biological macromolecoly and the main metabolic pathways in which they are involved. The key objective is to stimulate the student's interest in biomolecular sciences by giving maximum prominence to the interconnections between biochemical processes and the energy variations associated with them. At the end of the teaching, the student/student will have to demonstrate that they have acquired terminology and useful knowledge for a critical analysis of vital biochemical processes in order to achieve autonomy of critical and comprehensive evaluation of the processes themselves. APPLIED BIOLOGY MODULE Training objective: Providing knowledge of human biology in an evolutionary vision with particular reference to the molecular and cellular processes common to all living organisms. Provide knowledge about the mutagenic action of chemical and physical agents. Provide knowledge about the transmission of hereditary characters. The student should be able to explain the cellular mechanisms underlying the functioning of the whole organism and grasp the pathogenic meaning of any alterations of them; it must also be able to recognize the different ways in which Mendelian characters are transmitted in humans. At the end of the lesson, the student will have to demonstrate that he has acquired the basic knowledge of the mechanisms that govern life and cell reproduction, the interactions between cells, between organisms and between organisms and the environment. It will also need to demonstrate that it has acquired knowledge about the mechanisms of transmission of hereditary characters and will have to be able to recognise how genetic diseases are transmitted in humans, particularly those relating to tooth development and structure. These basic knowledges are a pre-requisite for further specialist insights that will be the subject of the lessons of the following years of course.

Syllabus

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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PREPARATORY CHEMISTRY (several notions are included in the basic knowledge required)
1. Atomic structure and periodic properties of the elements: matter composition, atom, atomic particles; atomic theory; quantum numbers, and orbitals; electronic configuration, periodic table and chemical reactivity of the elements; electronic affinity, electronegativity.
2. The chemical bond: molecules and ions; ionic and covalent bond; intermolecular forces; hydrogen bond.
3. Solutions and acid-base reactions: concentration of the solutions, acid-base theories of Arrhenius and Brőnsted-Lowry; hydracids, hydroxides, oxyacids; acid-base reactions; pH and buffer solutions.
4. Organic chemistry notions: carbon atom properties; hybrid orbitals; organic compounds classification: functional groups; hydrocarbons; alcohols, ethers, thiols, amines, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides.

BIOCHEMISTRY
1. Constitutive elements of the living matter: polymeric structure of the biological macromolecules.
2. Protein structure and function: aminoacid classification, buffering power, peptide bond, levels of protein structure; fibrous and globular proteins; hemoglobin and myoglobin: structure, function, factors influencing the oxygen bond; hemoglobin variants; enzymes: classification, role in the chemical reactions, regulation of the enzymatic activity.
3. Vitamins: hydro- and lypo-soluble vitamins; co-enzymes.
4. Bio-energetics: metabolism; chemical transformations in the cell; spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions of the metabolic reactions; ATP as “energy exchange coin”; biologically relevant redox reactions.
5. Carbohydrates structure and metabolism: mono- and disaccharides; polysaccharides; glycoconjugates; glycolysis and its regulation; gluconeogenesis; hints of the penthose phosphate pathway; synthesis of the glycogen.
6. Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondria; acetyl-CoA synthesis; citric acid cycle control; respiratory chain and electron transport; ATP synthesis.
7. Lipids structure and metabolism: structural lipids and biological membranes; cholesterol; stock-reserve lipids; lipids digestion and fatty acid β-oxydation; keton bodies formation; hints of fatty acids biosynthesis.
8. Aminoacid metabolism: hints of gluco- and keto-forming aminoacids; transamination and oxidative deamination; the urea cycle.
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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• Characteristics of the living beings • Chemistry of living organisms and biological molecules • prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell: organization of the cell; internal membranes and compartmentalization; organelles, characteristics and functions: nucleus, ribosomes, RER, REL, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, cell wall, extracellular matrix. Animal and plant cells. Mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts, amyloplasts, chromoplasts) and endosymbiont theory. • Biological membranes: structure and proposed models; passage of materials across cell membranes: passive transport (facilitated diffusion and simple), osmosis, directly and indirectly active transport, co-transport. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Anchoring, tight and gap cell junctions in animal and plant cells. • Cell communication: types of cellular communication: endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and iuxtacrine. Sending and receiving the signal. • Organization of DNA in chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis. DNA and proteins, nucleosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, chromosome condensation. The cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction • DNA and its role in heredity. DNA structure and replication. • Gene expression: transcription, genetic code and translation. Gene definition. • DNA mutations and mutagenesis • Hereditary character transmission and Mendel’s laws; definition of phenotype, genotype, locus, gene, dominant and recessive allele, homozygosity and heterozygosity. Segregation and independent assortment. Independence and association. Crossing-over and recombination. Genetic determination of sex. Gene interactions. Incomplete dominance, condominance, multiple alleles, epistasis and polygeny. • The human genome: karyotype analysis and pedigrees; autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, X-linked diseases. DIDACTIC METHOD Attendance to lessons is mandatory. Teaching methods consist of frontal lessons. In addition to the suggested texts, additional didactic supports are offered on the e-learning platform of the course. Students can make an appointment directly with the teacher every time they need it throughout the academic year, by email.

Students are invited to choose a textbook of Biochemistry and Biology among those indicated in each module form.

Assessment methods and criteria

Goal of the exam for the Course of Biomolecular fondamentals of Life: to verify students' advanced comprehension of the whole program topics and their capability to expose their reasoning in a critical and precise manner using appropriate scientific terms.

6 examination sessions are foreseen in the whole Academic Year: 2 in the Winter Session after the Course ending, 2 in the Summer Session, and 2 in the Autumn session.
Students will undertake both modules (written test made of multiple choice quizzes and open questions) if they have attended at least 75% of the frontal teaching activity of the entire Course; further information about exam organization is available in each module form.

The final mark (/out of 30) will derive from the evaluation of both modules. Students will pass the examination if the overall rating of both modules, based on the weighted average of credits, is greater than or equal to 18/30. Students can retire or refuse the proposed mark.
Students who do not pass both exam modules in the same session will have to take the missing/insufficient module in one of the subsequent sessions, if only within the extra winter session of the next Academic Year. From the next summer session, students will need to take both modules.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Bertoldi, Colombo, Magni, Marin, Palestini Chimica e Biochimica EdiSES 2015 978-88-7959-878-1
A. Fiecchi, M. Galli Kienle, A. Scala Chimica e propedeutica biochimica Edi-Ermes  
Luciano BINAGLIA, Bruno GIARDINA CHIMICA e PROPEDEUTICA BIOCHIMICA (con CD-ROM) Ediz. Mc Graw-Hill  
M. Samaja Corso di Biochimica per Lauree Triennali Piccin Ed. Padova  
Solomon, Martin, Martin, Berg Elementi di Biologia (Edizione 7) EdiSES 2017 978-88-7959-938-2
Raven, Johnson, Mason, Losos, Singer Elementi di biologia e genetica (Edizione 2) Piccin 2019
Sadava, Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker Elementi di Biologia e Genetica (Edizione 5) Zanichelli 2019 9788808820655
D. Voet, J. G. Voet, C.W. Pratt Fondamenti di Biochimica (Edizione 4) Zanichelli 2017 9788808420961
David L Nelson, Michael M Cox I principi di biochimica di Lehninger (Edizione 7) Zanichelli 2018 9788808920690
Sadava, Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker Elementi di Biologia e Genetica (Edizione 5) Zanichelli 2019




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