Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Vicenza)

Pathophysiology applied at Nursing (2020/2021)

Course code
4S000090
Credits
9
Coordinator
Claudio Sorio

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE 2 BIO/14-PHARMACOLOGY INF VI 1° ANNO 2° SEM Laura Cuzzolin
SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA 2 MED/09-INTERNAL MEDICINE INF VI 1° ANNO 2° SEM Marco Caminati
INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA 3 MED/45-NURSING See the unit page See the unit page
PATOLOGIA GENERALE 2 MED/04-EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY INF VI 1° ANNO 2° SEM Claudio Sorio

Syllabus

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MM: FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE
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GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY Definition of drug, medicinal product, generic drug, biosimilar, galenic and magistral preparations. Origin of drugs and the process of drug development. The market of drugs in Italy. Leaflet of drugs. Off-label use. International Classification System of drugs. Defined Daily Dose (DDD). Symptomatic, curative, preventive and substitutive drugs. Different actions of drugs: systemic or local, direct or indirect, primary or secondary, collateral, early or late onset. Pharmacokinetics: absorption (mechanisms, routes of administration, formulations), distribution (plasma protein binding, tissue vascularization, blood-brain barrier and placental transfer of drugs), biotransformation reactions and excretion of drugs. Pharmacokinetic parameters: bioavailability, volume of distribution, elimination half-life, clearance. Pharmacodynamics: general mechanisms of action, receptor definition, drug-receptor interaction, agonism and antagonism, affinity and intrinsic activity of drugs. ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AND TOXICOLOGY Clinical risks related to drug use: therapeutic errors and classification of adverse drug reactions. Pharmacovigilance: spontaneous reporting and the role of nurse. Drug dependence. Embryo-fetal toxicity. PHARMACOTHERAPY The concepts of risk/benefit and cost/benefit applied to drug treatments. “Placebo” and “Compliance” definitions. Dosage, maximum dose, effective dose, posology, therapeutic index. Therapeutic plasma levels of drugs, peak concentrations, therapeutic range, accumulation, toxic concentrations. Therapeutic drug monitoring. Drug interactions. Variability in drug response: therapeutic problems in neonates and children, elderly, patients with renal or hepatic insufficiency. Antimicrobial therapy: selective toxicity, spectrum of action, bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity, microbial resistance. Pharmacological characteristics and adverse effects of the most important groups of antibiotics, antifungals and antivirals. Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and paracetamol.
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MM: SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA
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MM: INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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Introduction to pathology • Cell homeostasis and alterations at the cell and organism levels • The concept of biochemical lesion and subcellular localization • Alteration of cell homeostasis: adaptation, necrosis, apoptosis, restoration of cell damage • Examples of cell adaptation: alterations of cells status and differentiation Causes of disease and mechanisms of cell damage • General classification of the causes of disease: genetic (example: cystic fibrosis), environmental, multifactorial (example: atherosclerosis), chemical (example: alcohol), radiation, free radicals • Mechanisms of healing Oedema: pathogenesis and classification Introduction to immunology and immunological damage • Innate and acquired immunity: description of leukocytes involved and general mechanisms • General features: antigen presentation, lymphocyte subclasses, complement • MHC ad transplants • Blood groups • Mechanisms of immuological damage: anafilaxis, complement activation, role of antibodies and Fc receptor, cell-dependent cytotoxicity Inflammation • Role of blood vessels in inflammation • Cells involved in inflammation • Classification of inflammatory response based on prevalent features: erithematous, serous, fibrinous, purulent, necrotic-haemorragic • Differences among acute and chronic inflammation • Cytokines and their role in the regulation of the inflammatory response Neoplasia • Differences among benign and malign neoplasms • Properties of neoplastic cells: growth, invasion and differentiation • General classification: epithelial, mesenchimal, neuroectodermal and germinal, hemopoietc cells neoplasms • Natural history of neoplasia: precancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ, metastasis. Preferential localization. TNM score. • Molecular basis of neoplastic transformation: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Mechanisms of activation/inhibition. • Cancer etiology: physical, chemical and biological • Mechanism of damage: compression, paraneoplastic syndromes, cachexia • Cancer biomarkers and their clinical relevance

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE
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Learning evaluation of General Pharmacology is made inside the written exam "Pathophysiology applied at Nursing": 15 questions are provided through multiple-choice (2 correct between 5) or semi-structured answers.
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MM: SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA
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Quiz: multiple choices. Oral exam at request or if deemed appropriate by the commission .
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MM: INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA
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Oral exam after positive evaluation of a written test
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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Quiz: multiple choices. Oral exam at request or if deemed appropriate by the commission .

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
G.M. Pontieri Elementi di Patologia generale e Fisiopatologia generale (Edizione 4) Piccin 2018 978-88-299-2912-2
Marina Vanzetta Roberto Leone Maurizio Volterrani Farmaci e infermiere. Un prontuario per la somministrazione McGraw-Hill Education 2013
Taglialatela Conforti Cuzzolin Leone Mattioli Moretti Pignataro Vanzetta Farmacologia per le lauree triennali e magistrali II Edizione (Edizione 2) Sorbona 2019
Clark M.A., Finkel R., Rey J.A., Whalen K. Le basi della farmacologia Zanichelli 2013 978-88-08-18864-9
Giovanni M. Pontieri Patologia generale & fisiopatologia generale. Per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (Edizione 3) Piccin 2018 8829921424


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