Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Verona)

Pathophysiology applied at Nursing [Matricole dispari] (2020/2021)

Course code
4S000090
Credits
9
Coordinator
Silvia Vincenzi

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE 2 BIO/14-PHARMACOLOGY INF VR 1° ANNO 2° SEM Ugo Moretti
SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA 2 MED/09-INTERNAL MEDICINE INF VR 1° ANNO 2° SEM Nicola Martinelli
INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA 3 MED/45-NURSING See the unit page See the unit page
PATOLOGIA GENERALE 2 MED/04-EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY INF VR 1° ANNO 2° SEM Nicola Tamassia

Syllabus

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MM: FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE
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Basic principles of Pharmacology and introduction to the drugs on the market Definition of drug, active substance, pharmaceutical product, vehicle, excipient, placebo effect Evaluation of drugs efficacy: the randomized clinical trial Different sources of drugs. How drugs enter the market Bioequivalent and biosimilar drugs Italian drug market. Drugs reimbursment by the National Health Service. OTC and SOP drugs, different types of prescriptions. Package inserts: therapeutic indications, dosages, warnings and contraindications. The off-label use International classification of drugs: Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System. How to measure drug use: the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) Pharmacodynamics Drugs classification depending on therapeutic usages. Basic principles of mechanisms of drug action: drug receptors, drug-receptor interaction: agonism and antagonism. Pharmacological, physiological and chemistry antagonisms Pharmacokinetics Drugs absorption. Main characteristics of different drug administration routes: advantages and disadvantages. Bioavailability of drugs. Food-drugs interactions Drugs distribution in the body. Carriers and efflux pumps. Factors that may influence drugs distribution: blood-brain and placental barriers Characteristics of drug metabolism. Enzyme induction and inhibition Drug clearance. Factors affecting drug clearance Definition and meaning of dose, maximum dose, daily dose, dosing, therapeutic index, clearance, half-life, peak blood levels, therapeutic range, toxic concentrations, accumulation Relationship between plasma concentrations of drugs and their action Factors to be taken into account in determining the dose of a drug, and in case of repeated administrations, dosing interval How to calculate pharmaceutical doses Pharmacotherapy Risk/benefit and cost/benefit analyses of drugs: basics. Adverse drug reactions: mechanisms and risk factors. The spontaneous reporting system of adverse drug reactions: regulation and role of nurses Antibacterial drugs: general issues and characteristics of the main classes of antibacterial drugs. Basics of antivirals and vaccines. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): epidemiology, pharmacological mechanisms, main therapeutic uses, adverse reactions
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MM: SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA
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MM: INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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• Introduction to general pathology. Concepts of homeostasis and functional reserve organ. The disease: definition, causes (congenital and acquired diseases); concept of pathogenesis. • cellular pathology: General concepts: steady state cell and tissue and its alterations: a) degenerative changes in the cells (reversible and irreversible cell damage) and cell death (necrosis, apoptosis). Types of necrosis b) Amendments of volumetric cells (hypertrophy, atrophy, atrophy) and their causes c) numerical modifications of cells (hyperplasia, hypoplasia, aplasia) and their causes d) Alterations of cellular differentiation processes (metaplasia, anaplasia, dysplasia). • Inflammation: General concepts: inflammation as a reaction of the body to harmful agents Types of inflammation: a) Acute inflammation: - General and fundamental moments Features (hyperemia, exudation, chemotaxis) - Outline of chemical mediators of inflammation - Particular aspects of acute inflammation (inflammatory erythematous, serous, catarrhal, purulent, fibrinous, hemorrhagic and necrotizing), and their consequences on the organism (payments, phlegm, abscesses, phlegmon, fistula, empyema, whites, adhesions, synechiae, pseudomembrane, necrosis ...) - Evolution of acute inflammation b) Chronic inflammation: - Features and pathogenetic mechanisms - The granulomas. Main granulomatous diseases - Useful and harmful effects of inflammation - General Manifestations of inflammation (Fever, leukocytosis, synthesis of acute phase proteins, muscle breakdown, changes in serum iron and zinchemia, endocrine disorders, etc. ...) • The healing process of a wound: Phases of wound healing: coagulation, formation of granulation tissue scarring. Complications of the healing process: infection, dehiscence, keloid formation. • General oncology: - General characteristics of tumors: benign and malignant tumors. - The neoplastic cell: structural and functional aspects (atypia, anaplasia, characteristics of aggregation, replication mode ..) and give the guest mechanisms - Study the causes of cancer: epidemiological and experimental data - Overview of main chemical carcinogens, physical and biological - Overview of genes involved in the determinism of cancer (oncogenes and anti-oncogenes). - Natural history of cancer: initiation, promotion, progression, metastasis - Mechanisms of defense against cancer: relationship between immunity and cancer. - Systematics of neoplasms (nomenclature) • General Hemostasis: General observations about the normal hemostatic mechanisms. A) Deficit of haemostatic mechanisms: bleeding Causes of hemorrhage (vascular, platelet, coagulation deficit, from hyperfibrinolysis); local manifestations (petechiae, purpura, bruising, hematemesis, melena, hematuria, hemoptysis) and general (anemia, hypoxia) of bleeding disorders B) Thrombosis: General characteristics and pathogenesis of venous and arterial thrombosis; Consequences of thrombosis: angina and heart attack embolism signs (types of emboli, embolism consequences). • Immunology - Immune response: natural immunity and specific immunity. organs primary and secondary lymphoid. NK cells. - B cells and T: origin, characteristics and activation mode. - Concept of antigen. - Antibodies: characteristics and role in defensive processes - Overview of immune deficiencies - Autoimmunity: causes and and examples of autoimmune diseases. - The hypersensitivity reactions: General mechanisms of local and generalized hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis, cytotoxic reactions, immune complex, delayed hypersensitivity): Examples of the most common hypersensitivity reactions.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE
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Written test with multiple choice questions
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MM: SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA
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MM: INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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Quiz with multiple choices

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
G. M. Pontieri Elementi di Fisiopatologia Generale Piccin-Nuova Libraria 2018 8829929085
Clayton – Stock a cura di P. Preziosi Fondamenti di farmacologia per infermieri (Edizione 2) EdiSeS 2007 978-88-7959--402-8
Anna Brugnolli, Luisa Saiani Medicina e infermieristica un approccio di cure integrate (Edizione 1) Idelson Gnocchi 2017 9788879476379
Saiani-Brugnolli Trattato di cure infermieristiche (Edizione 3) Sorbona 2020 9788879477314
Singoli moduli Vedi i libri indicati nei singoli moduli 2019
G.M. Pontieri Elementi di Patologia generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (Edizione 3) Piccin 2012 978-88-299-2130-0
Regueiro Gonzales J.R. Immunologia - Biologia e Patologia del sistema immunitario Piccin 2012
Emanuel Rubin, Howard M. Reisner Patologia Generale. L'essenziale Piccin 2015 978-88-299-2740-1


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