To show the organization of the course that includes this module, follow this link Course organization
The course aims to provide:
- basic knowledge of general and organic chemistry in preparation for biochemistry;
- knowledge of the structure-function relationships of the main classes of biological macromolecules and the main metabolic pathways in which they are involved;
- knowledge of the existing interconnections between biochemical processes and related energetics.
At the end of the course the student should prove the acquisition of scientific terms and notions in order to critically and autonomously evaluate the biochemical processes of life.
- Building blocks of general and organic chemistry: the carbon atom; electronic configuration; organic compounds nomenclature and functional groups.
- Protein structure and function: structure and physico-chemical properties of amino acids; peptide bond; protein structure levels; fibrous proteins; globular proteins; hemoglobin and myoglobin; actin; myosin.
- Enzymes: classification; activation energy; coenzymes and cofactors; water-soluble vitamins; regulation of enzymatic activity.
- Nucleic acids: basic notions of their structural functions; their role as energy carriers, as components of enzymatic cofactors, and as chemical messengers.
- Introduction to metabolism: anabolism and catabolism; ATP; redox coenzymes (NAD and FAD); chemical equilibrium and Le Chatelier principle; equilibrium constant; Gibbs free energy; exo- and endo-ergonic reactions; equilibria and spontaneity of reactions; metabolic pathways; metabolic intermediates; metabolism regulation.
- Carbohydrates: monosaccharides; disaccharides; polysaccharides; glycogen; starch; cellulose; glycosaminoglycans; proteoglycans and glycoproteins.
- Carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis and its regulation; alcoholic fermentation; lactic fermentation; phosphate pentose pathway; gluconeogenesis; glycogenosynthesis; glycogenolysis; hormonal regulation (glucagon, insulin and adrenaline); Cori cycle.
- Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation: regulation of the citric acid cycle; electron transport chain; oxidative phosphorylation.
- Lipids: reserve lipids; structural membrane lipids; cholesterol; lipids as signals and cofactors.
- Lipid metabolism: lipid biosynthesis; fatty-acid synthase; cholesterol metabolism; beta-oxidation of fatty acids; cheotnic bodies.
- Amino acid metabolism: metabolic fate of amino groups; urea cycle; glucose-alanine cycle; transamination.
The teaching method used in this teaching is exclusively of the frontal type.
|Catani et all||Appunti di biochimica (Edizione 2)||piccin||2017||978-88-299-2843-9|
|Stefani M, Taddei N||Chimica Biochimica e Biologia Applicata.||Zanichelli ed., Bologna||2010|
|M. Samaja, R. Paroni||Chimica e Biochimica||Piccin||2016|
|David L Nelson, Michael M Cox||Introduzione alla Biochimica del Lehninger||Zanichelli||2018|
In order to pass the final exam, students shall demonstrate an appropriate understanding of the basic concepts of biochemistry, from biological macromolecules to metabolic transformations.
The exam consists of a written test based on the didactic contents of the whole course and will be structured as follows:
- 15 multiple choice questions - each correct answer is worth 1 point;
- 3 open questions, to be briefly answered in a limited space and in a complete and concise way - each open answer is worth 5 points.
The duration of the exam will be 60 minutes.
The final score will be expressed in thirty’s (/30) and will be given by the summing up the score obtained in all the questions. The Biochemistry module exam will be considered passed and maintained valid within the Academic Year with a minum score of 18/30.