Bachelor's degree in Cardiocirculatory Physiopathology and Cardiovascular Perfusion Techniques (national qualification)

Biological and biochemical sciences - BIOLOGIA APPLICATA

Course code
Name of lecturer
Elisabetta Trabetti
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Academic sector
Language of instruction
Lezioni PERF 1 SEMESTRE dal Oct 1, 2019 al Dec 20, 2019.

To show the organization of the course that includes this module, follow this link * Course organization

Lesson timetable

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Learning outcomes

The course purposes are:
• to provide basic knowledge about structural, functional and molecular principles of living organisms, in an evolutionary view of life
• to provide basic knowledge on the fundamental concepts of genetics and transmission of hereditary characters in humans, even through specific examples of genetic defects.
At the end of the course, students should demonstrate to have acquired the knowledge for basic mechanisms which regulate intra/intercellular activities, cellular interactions and reproduction, and cause mutations. They should also demonstrate to be familiar with Mendelian genetics and particularly with pathologic trait in humans. Moreover, students should demonstrate their capability to expose reasoning in a critical and precise manner using appropriate scientific language.


• Characteristics of the living beings
• Chemistry of living organisms and biological molecules
• prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell: organization of the cell; internal membranes and compartmentalization; organelles, characteristics and functions: nucleus, ribosomes, RER, REL, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, cell wall, extracellular matrix. Animal and plant cells. Mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts, amyloplasts, chromoplasts) and endosymbiont theory.
• Biological membranes: structure and proposed models; passage of materials across cell membranes: passive transport (facilitated diffusion and simple), osmosis, directly and indirectly active transport, co-transport. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Anchoring, tight and gap cell junctions in animal and plant cells.
• Cell communication: types of cellular communication: endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and iuxtacrine. Sending and receiving the signal.
• Organization of DNA in chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis. DNA and proteins, nucleosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, chromosome condensation. The cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction
• DNA and its role in heredity. DNA structure and replication.
• Gene expression: transcription, genetic code and translation. Gene definition.
• DNA mutations and mutagenesis
• Hereditary character transmission and Mendel’s laws; definition of phenotype, genotype, locus, gene, dominant and recessive allele, homozygosity and heterozygosity. Segregation and independent assortment. Independence and association. Crossing-over and recombination. Genetic determination of sex. Gene interactions. Incomplete dominance, condominance, multiple alleles, epistasis and polygeny.
• The human genome: karyotype analysis and pedigrees; autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, X-linked diseases.

Attendance to lessons is mandatory.
Teaching methods consist of frontal lessons. In addition to the suggested texts, additional didactic supports are offered on the e-learning platform of the course.
Students can make an appointment directly with the teacher every time they need it throughout the academic year, by email.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Solomon, Martin, Martin, Berg Elementi di Biologia (Edizione 7) EdiSES 2017 978-88-7959-938-2
Raven, Johnson, Mason, Losos, Singer Elementi di biologia e genetica (Edizione 2) Piccin 2019
Sadava, Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker Elementi di Biologia e Genetica (Edizione 5) Zanichelli 2019

Assessment methods and criteria

To pass the Biology module the students must demonstrate they acquired the comprehension and the knowledge of the program topics. Furthermore, they must show the capability to expose their reasoning in a critical and precise manner and using appropriate scientific language.
6 examinations are foreseen in the whole Academic Year: 2 in the Winter Session after the Course ending, 2 in the Summer Session, and 2 in the Autumn session.
The Biology module exam is a written test based on the topics of the entire course. In particular, it consists of multiple choice questions, plus open questions.
The Biology module exam is considered passed if the vote is at least 18/30. It remains valid only within the extra winter session of the next Academic Year. Students can retire or refuse the proposed mark.

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