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The teaching is focused on the assistance to patients with acute or chronic infectious problems and on the main measures for the prevention of infections in the hospital environment, in particular those in which nurses play an essential role. Particular emphasis is given to the recognition of symptoms, signs and vital signs that can configure an infectious emergency, risk factors for the acquisition of nosocomial infections and procedures to prevent their onset. Of the pathologies treated, a global and national epidemiological picture, and whenever possible a regional and local one, are provided and so are the essential notions on the modalities of transmission and on the pathophysiology; the main symptoms and clinical signs are indicated, as well as key laboratory tests and respective advantages and limitations, and some hints of therapy. The specific role and contribution of the nursing profession (as refers to assistance, prevention and education) is highlighted, especially considering high-risk patients.
Hospital infections and antibiotic resistance: the most frequent, their epidemiological impact, how to prevent them, how to help prevent complications, which patients are at greatest risk. Risk for personnel. The importance of hand washing as a shared culture.
Sepsis: correct definition of SIRS, bacteremia, sepsis andseptic shock; etiology; global and local epidemiological aspects and main risk factors; main pathogenic mechanisms; clinical aspects and principles of supportive and specific therapy. Meaning of the main laboratory markers, indication and interpretation of blood cultures.
Meningitis: definition, classification and etiology of bacterial versus aseptic meningitis, epidemiology and its modifications by vaccination, main symptoms and clinical signs, diagnosis, hints of therapy, identification of isolation needs, vaccination and prophylaxis and their indications.
Hepatitis: definition, epidemiology, transmission, most important clinical signs, prevention, vaccine and therapy
Tuberculosis: global, national, regional and local epidemiology also in relation to the nationality and influence of HIV; epidemiology of multi-resistant TB; pathophysiology; distinction between latent infection and disease and respective measures; isolation, individual protection and their indications; outline of therapy and importance of ensuring compliance.
Malaria: global, national, regional and local epidemiology also in relation to nationality; classical transmission versus cryptic malaria; biological cycle of plasmodium in the human host; the phenomenon of recrudescence; hints of pathophysiology and clinical picture with particular reference to complicated malaria; diagnosis; hints of therapy and chemoprophylaxis.
HIV - AIDS: global and national epidemiological aspects and their modifications over time; main modes of transmission; screening and confirmatory diagnosis; outline of immunology and pathogenesis; main clinical aspects including opportunistic infections; HIV and TB; other coinfections; HIV and tumors; hints of antiretroviral therapy and treatment of opportunistic infections; main preventive measures and principles of post-exposure prophylaxis.
|Anna Brugnolli, Luisa Saiani||Medicina e infermieristica un approccio di cure integrate (Edizione 1)||Idelson Gnocchi||2017||9788879476379|