|Teaching is organised as follows:|
|Unit||Credits||Academic sector||Period||Academic staff|
|BIOLOGIA APPLICATA E GENETICA||2||BIO/13-EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY||Lezioni CLID Rov. 1 semestre||
The course aims to provide the knowledge of biology, biochemistry and genetics necessary for understanding the physiological and pathological processes related to the health and disease of individuals in different age groups. Biological and biochemical knowledge will contribute to the acquisition of skills aimed at promoting the adoption of practices that improve the person's health and nursing care. To complete the course the student will have acquired: basic knowledge of organic chemistry and biochemistry on the structure-function relationships of the main classes of biological macromolecules, on the metabolic regulation at the molecular level and the energy transformations of biochemical processes; knowledge of cellular and genetic biology related to the structural, functional and molecular characteristics of the cell; understanding of the applications of genomic knowledge to medicine. This knowledge will enable us to understand cellular processes common to all living organisms and in particular the basic mechanisms that regulate metabolic activity, reproduction and cellular interactions and the mechanisms of transmission of genetic diseases in humans. BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE: The course aims to provide: - basic knowledge of general and organic chemistry preparatory to biochemistry. - knowledge on the structure-function relationships of the main classes of biological macromolecules and on metabolic regulation at the molecular level. - knowledge on the interconnections existing between the different biochemical processes and the energy transformations connected to them. At the end of the course the student / student must demonstrate to have acquired terminologies and notions useful for a critical analysis of the vital biochemical processes in order to achieve autonomy of critical and global evaluation of the processes themselves. APPLIED BIOLOGY MODULE: The course aims to provide the basic knowledge of biology and human genetics describing in particular the basic principles on which the biology is based, the structural, functional and molecular characteristics of the cellular processes common to all living organisms, the transmission of hereditary traits and the molecular basis of genetic diseases, while developing an appropriate language. In particular, aspects of human biology of particular biomedical interest will be highlighted during the course. At the end of the course the student will be able to understand the mechanisms that regulate life, cell reproduction, interactions between cells and to recognize the different modes of transmission of Mendelian characters and genetic diseases in humans. Essential information to deal with the subsequent lessons that the student will meet during the course of study.
MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA E GENETICA
• Characteristics of the living beings
• Chemistry of living organisms and biological molecules
• prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell: organization of the cell; internal membranes and compartmentalization; organelles, characteristics and functions: nucleus, ribosomes, RER, REL, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, cell wall, extracellular matrix. Animal and plant cells. Mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts, amyloplasts, chromoplasts) and endosymbiont theory.
• Biological membranes: structure and proposed models; passage of materials across cell membranes: passive transport (facilitated diffusion and simple), osmosis, directly and indirectly active transport, co-transport. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Anchoring, tight and gap cell junctions in animal and plant cells.
• Cell communication: types of cellular communication: endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and iuxtacrine. Sending and receiving the signal.
• Organization of DNA in chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis. DNA and proteins, nucleosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, chromosome condensation. The cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction
• DNA and its role in heredity. DNA structure and replication.
• Gene expression: transcription, genetic code and translation. Gene definition.
• DNA mutations and mutagenesis
• Hereditary character transmission and Mendel’s laws; definition of phenotype, genotype, locus, gene, dominant and recessive allele, homozygosity and heterozygosity. Segregation and independent assortment. Independence and association. Crossing-over and recombination. Genetic determination of sex. Gene interactions. Incomplete dominance, condominance, multiple alleles, epistasis and polygeny.
• The human genome: karyotype analysis and pedigrees; autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, X-linked diseases.
PREPARATORY CHEMISTRY (several notions are included in the basic knowledge required)
1. Atomic structure and periodic properties of the elements: matter composition, atom, atomic particles; atomic theory; quantum numbers, and orbitals; electronic configuration, periodic table and chemical reactivity of the elements; electronic affinity, electronegativity.
2. The chemical bond: molecules and ions; ionic and covalent bond; intermolecular forces; hydrogen bond.
3. Solutions and acid-base reactions: concentration of the solutions, acid-base theories of Arrhenius and Brőnsted-Lowry; hydracids, hydroxides, oxyacids; acid-base reactions; pH and buffer solutions.
4. Organic chemistry notions: carbon atom properties; hybrid orbitals; organic compounds classification: functional groups; hydrocarbons; alcohols, ethers, thiols, amines, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides.
1. Constitutive elements of the living matter: polymeric structure of the biological macromolecules.
2. Protein structure and function: aminoacid classification, buffering power, peptide bond, levels of protein structure; fibrous and globular proteins; hemoglobin and myoglobin: structure, function, factors influencing the oxygen bond; hemoglobin variants; enzymes: classification, role in the chemical reactions, regulation of the enzymatic activity.
3. Vitamins: hydro- and lypo-soluble vitamins; co-enzymes.
4. Bio-energetics: metabolism; chemical transformations in the cell; spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions of the metabolic reactions; ATP as “energy exchange coin”; biologically relevant redox reactions.
5. Carbohydrates structure and metabolism: mono- and disaccharides; polysaccharides; glycoconjugates; glycolysis and its regulation; gluconeogenesis; hints of the penthose phosphate pathway; synthesis of the glycogen.
6. Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondria; acetyl-CoA synthesis; citric acid cycle control; respiratory chain and electron transport; ATP synthesis.
7. Lipids structure and metabolism: structural lipids and biological membranes; cholesterol; stock-reserve lipids; lipids digestion and fatty acid β-oxydation; keton bodies formation; hints of fatty acids biosynthesis.
8. Aminoacid metabolism: hints of gluco- and keto-forming aminoacids; transamination and oxidative deamination; the urea cycle.
Students are invited to choose a textbook of Biochemistry and Biology among those indicated in each module form.
Goal of the exam for the Course of Biomolecular fondamentals of Life: to verify students' advanced comprehension of the whole program topics and their capability to expose their reasoning in a critical and precise manner using appropriate scientific terms.
6 examination sessions are foreseen in the whole Academic Year: 2 in the Winter Session after the Course ending, 2 in the Summer Session, and 2 in the Autumn session.
Students will undertake both modules (written test made of multiple choice quizzes and open questions) if they have attended at least 75% of the frontal teaching activity of the entire Course; further information about exam organization is available in each module form.
The final mark (/out of 30) will derive from the evaluation of both modules. Students will pass the examination if the overall rating of both modules, based on the weighted average of credits, is greater than or equal to 18/30. Students can retire or refuse the proposed mark.
Students who do not pass both exam modules in the same session will have to take the missing/insufficient module in one of the subsequent sessions, if only within the extra winter session of the next Academic Year. From the next summer session, students will need to take both modules.
|Roberti, Antognelli, Bistocchi, Talesa||Biochimica e Biologia per le professioni sanitarie (Edizione 2)||McGraw-Hill||2013|
|A. Fiecchi, M. Galli Kienle, A. Scala||Chimica e propedeutica biochimica||Edi-Ermes|
|Luciano BINAGLIA, Bruno GIARDINA||CHIMICA e PROPEDEUTICA BIOCHIMICA (con CD-ROM)||Ediz. Mc Graw-Hill|
|M. Samaja||Corso di Biochimica per Lauree Triennali||Piccin Ed. Padova|
|Solomon, Martin, Martin, Berg||Elementi di Biologia (Edizione 7)||EdiSES||2017||978-88-7959-938-2|
|Sadava, Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker||Elementi di Biologia e Genetica (Edizione 5)||Zanichelli||2019|
|Lantieri PB, Risso D, Ravera G||Elementi di Statistica Medica||McGraw-Hill||2007|
|Verlato G, Zanolin ME||Esercizi di Statistica Medica, Informatica ed Epidemiologia||Libreria Cortina Editrice, Verona||2000|
|Douglas G. Altman||Practical Statistics for Medical Research||1990|
|Glantz SA||Statistica per Discipline Biomediche (Edizione 6)||McGraw-Hill||2007||9788838639258|
|Stefani M, Taddei N||Chimica Biochimica e Biologia Applicata.||Zanichelli ed., Bologna||2010|
|M. Samaja, R. Paroni||Chimica e Biochimica||Piccin||2016|
|Bertoldi, Colombo, Magni, Marin, Palestini||Chimica e Biochimica||EdiSES||2015||978-88-7959-878-1|
|D. Voet, J. G. Voet, C.W. Pratt||Fondamenti di Biochimica (Edizione 4)||Zanichelli||2017||9788808420961|
|David L Nelson, Michael M Cox||I principi di biochimica di Lehninger (Edizione 7)||Zanichelli||9788808920690|