Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Bolzano)

Pathophysiology applied at Nursing - PATOLOGIA GENERALE

Course code
Name of lecturer
Barbara Rossi
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Academic sector
Language of instruction
INF BZ - 1° anno 2° sem dal Feb 1, 2019 al Mar 29, 2019.

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Lesson timetable

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Learning outcomes

The course introduces the student to the basic concepts of major diseases and the fundamental pathogenetic processes correlate to cell changes, the organ function, homeostatic mechanisms, and clinical manifestations of disease. It is also proposed the study of the basic principles of pharmacology, in particular pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms and introduces the student to understand and assess the benefit and risk profile of medicines. It is also proposed to develop in the student an approach oriented to the definition of the problems, the choice of prevention interventions and alterations management of respiratory function and elimination, the recognition and multidimensional assessment of pain.


Introduction to general pathology. Concepts of homeostasis and functional reserve organ. The disease: definition, causes (congenital and acquired diseases); concept of pathogenesis.
• cellular pathology: General concepts: steady state cell and tissue and its alterations: a) degenerative changes in the cells (reversible and irreversible cell damage) and cell death (necrosis, apoptosis). Types of necrosis b) Amendments of volumetric cells (hypertrophy, atrophy, atrophy) and their causes c) numerical modifications of cells (hyperplasia, hypoplasia, aplasia) and their causes d) Alterations of cellular differentiation processes (metaplasia, anaplasia, dysplasia).
• Inflammation: General concepts: inflammation as a reaction of the body to harmful agents
Types of inflammation:
a) Acute inflammation:
- General and fundamental moments Features (hyperemia, exudation, chemotaxis)
- Outline of chemical mediators of inflammation
- Particular aspects of acute inflammation (inflammatory erythematous, serous, catarrhal, purulent, fibrinous, hemorrhagic and necrotizing), and their consequences on the organism (payments, phlegm, abscesses, phlegmon, fistula, empyema, whites, adhesions, synechiae, pseudomembrane, necrosis ...)
- Evolution of acute inflammation
b) Chronic inflammation:
- Features and pathogenetic mechanisms
- The granulomas. Main granulomatous diseases
- Useful and harmful effects of inflammation
- General Manifestations of inflammation (Fever, leukocytosis, synthesis of acute phase proteins, muscle breakdown, changes in serum iron and zinchemia, endocrine disorders, etc. ...)
• The healing process of a wound: Phases of wound healing: coagulation, formation of granulation tissue scarring. Complications of the healing process: infection, dehiscence, keloid formation.
• General oncology:
- General characteristics of tumors: benign and malignant tumors.
- The neoplastic cell: structural and functional aspects (atypia, anaplasia, characteristics of aggregation, replication mode ..) and give the guest mechanisms
- Study the causes of cancer: epidemiological and experimental data
- Overview of main chemical carcinogens, physical and biological
- Overview of genes involved in the determinism of cancer (oncogenes and anti-oncogenes).
- Natural history of cancer: initiation, promotion, progression, metastasis
- Mechanisms of defense against cancer: relationship between immunity and cancer.
- Systematics of neoplasms (nomenclature)
• General Hemostasis: General observations about the normal hemostatic mechanisms.
A) Deficit of haemostatic mechanisms: bleeding Causes of hemorrhage (vascular, platelet, coagulation deficit, from hyperfibrinolysis); local manifestations (petechiae, purpura, bruising, hematemesis, melena, hematuria, hemoptysis) and general (anemia, hypoxia) of bleeding disorders
B) Thrombosis: General characteristics and pathogenesis of venous and arterial thrombosis; Consequences of thrombosis: angina and heart attack embolism signs (types of emboli, embolism consequences).
• Immunology
- Immune response: natural immunity and specific immunity. organs primary and secondary lymphoid. NK cells.
- B cells and T: origin, characteristics and activation mode.
- Concept of antigen.
- Antibodies: characteristics and role in defensive processes
- Overview of immune deficiencies
- Autoimmunity: causes and and examples of autoimmune diseases.
- The hypersensitivity reactions: General mechanisms of local and generalized hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis, cytotoxic reactions, immune complex, delayed hypersensitivity): Examples of the most common hypersensitivity reactions.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Regueiro Gonzales J.R. Immunologia - Biologia e Patologia del sistema immunitario Piccin 2012
E. Albi, F.S. Ambesi-Impiombato, F. Curcio, B. Moncharmont, A . Palese Le basi cellulari e molecolari delle malattie - per le lauree triennali e magistrali (Edizione 1) Idelson-Gnocchi - Sorbona 2018
Pontieri GM Patologia e Fisiopatologia Generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (ristampa aggiornata) Edizioni Piccin, Padova 2007

Assessment methods and criteria

Quiz with multiple choices


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