Bachelor's degree in Dental Hygiene (Rovereto)

Pathology and general dentistry - PATOLOGIA GENERALE

Course code
Name of lecturer
Vittorina Della Bianca
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Academic sector
Language of instruction
CLID ROV 1 ANNO 2 SEM dal Mar 5, 2018 al Apr 30, 2018.

To show the organization of the course that includes this module, follow this link * Course organization

Lesson timetable

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Learning outcomes

The basic aim of the course is the acquisition of Pathology conceptual tools and science to explain the causes and mechanisms of human disease. The program includes the main pathogenic factors: chemical, physical and biological agents and their effects (biological damage) on living matter, on cells and tissues, the reactions to the biological damage that are crucial in the process of healing / repair or disease, with particular reference mechanisms of immunity, inflammation, wound healing and chronic disease processes


1) Introduction to General Pathology.
Concepts of homeostasis and functional reserve organ. The disease: definition, causes (congenital and acquired diseases); concept of pathogenesis. Mechanisms of action of bacterial toxins.

2) Cellular pathology:
General concepts: steady state cell and tissue and its alterations:
a) Degenerative changes in the cells (reversible and irreversible cell damage) and cell death (necrosis, apoptosis). Types of necrosis.
b) Cellular volumetric alterations (hypertrophy, atrophy, atrophy) and their causes
c) Numerical modifications of cells (hyperplasia, hypoplasia, aplasia) and their causes
d) Alterations of cellular differentiation processes (metaplasia, anaplasia, dysplasia).

3) Inflammation
General concepts: inflammation as a reaction of the body to harmful agents
Types of inflammation:
a) Acute inflammation:
General features and main phases (hyperemia, exudation, chemotaxis)
Outline of chemical mediators of inflammation
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Structure and main functions. Chemotaxis. Phagocytosis, killing.
Particular aspects of acute inflammation (inflammatory erythematous, serous, catarrhal, purulent, fibrinous, hemorrhagic and necrotizing), and their consequences on the organism (abscesses, phlegmon, fistula, ...)
Evolution of acute inflammation
b) Chronic inflammation:
Features and pathogenetic mechanisms
Mononuclear phagocytes.
The granulomas.
Useful and harmful effects of inflammation
General Manifestations of inflammation (Fever, leukocytosis, synthesis of acute phase proteins)

4) The healing process of a wound:
Phases of wound healing: coagulation, formation of granulation tissue scarring.
Complications of the healing process: infection, keloid formation

5) Organization of the immune system.
B cell. Antigens and antibodies. T cells. HLA system.
Immune responses intraoral and extraoral.
Hypersensitivity. Autoimmunity

6) General Pathology of Hemostasis:
General observations about the normal hemostatic mechanisms.
Deficit of haemostatic mechanisms: bleeding Causes of hemorrhage (vascular, platelet, coagulation deficit, from hyperfibrinolysis)

7) General oncology:
General characteristics of tumors
The neoplastic cell: structural and functional aspects (atypia, anaplasia, characteristics of aggregation, replication mode ..)
Benign and malignant tumors.
Overview of genes involved in the determinism of cancer (oncogenes and anti-oncogenes).
Natural history of cancer: initiation, promotion, progression, metastasis
Systematics of neoplasms (nomenclature)

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Regueiro Gonzales J.R. Immunologia - Biologia e Patologia del sistema immunitario Piccin 2012
Pontieri GM Patologia e Fisiopatologia Generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (ristampa aggiornata) Edizioni Piccin, Padova 2007
Emanuel Rubin, Howard M. Reisner Patologia Generale. L'essenziale Piccin 2015 978-88-299-2740-1

Assessment methods and criteria

Multiple choice tests


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