Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Vicenza)

Biomolecular fondamentals of life (2017/2018)

Course code
4S000089
Credits
4
Coordinator
Maria Romanelli

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
BIOCHIMICA 2 BIO/10-BIOCHEMISTRY INF VI - 1° anno 1° sem Elio Maria Liboi
BIOLOGIA APPLICATA 2 BIO/13-EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY INF VI - 1° anno 1° sem Maria Romanelli

Learning outcomes

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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To transmit the main chemical principles to allow comprehension of the mechanisms that control matter interaction. To explain macromolecules organization and the principle of metabolism. To understand factors that regulate the main metabolic pathways. Emphasis will be on physiological and pathological processes associated to the main biochemical functions.
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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The course aims to provide the cognitive basis for understanding the contribution of biological macromolecules to the biological organization and functioning of structures of living organisms and to the most important aspects of human biology. Teaching also seeks out the basic concepts of genetics, the most common genetic diseases, and their transmission modes. At the end of the course, the student must demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the basics of biology also in relation to the health status of the human population.

Syllabus

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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Chemistry The matter: atoms, molecules. Atomic organization: atomic orbitals, energy levels Periodic table of the elements Chemical bound: covalent, ionic. Week interactions: hydrogen bond, van der Waals, hydrophobic interaction. Molecules: water. Properties and interactions in water. Solutions: definitions and concentrations (Molarity), osmosis. Buffer, pH. Chemical reactions: red/ox. Thermodynamic: Free energy (G), energetic potential of ATP, coupled reactions. Biochemistry Proteins: amino acids, peptide bound. Protein structures. Post translational modifications. Quality control for secreted proteins. Enzymes: kinetic, mechanism of action. Enzymatic inhibition. Allosteric regulation. Nucleic acids: nucleotides, DNA, RNA Sugars: simple and complex sugars. sugar bond, polysaccharides (starch and glycogen). Glycoproteins: blood groups. Membranes: properties, phospholipids, double layer. Lipids: fatty acids, cholesterol. Metabolism. general principles, regulations, hormones, vitamins. Sugar metabolism: glycolysis, regulations, alcohol fermentation, lactic fermentation. Pentose cycle. Citric acid cycle: oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthase Gluconeogenesis. Fatty acid metabolism: fatty acid digestion, beta oxidation, ketone bodies. Fatty acid synthesis Protein metabolism: transamination. Urea cycle. Protein biosynthesis.
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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Synthetic program General characteristics of living organisms. - Life macromolecules: DNA, RNA, proteins. - Cell structure and function: general characteristics, separation of subcellular components. Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus. - The molecular basis of hereditary information. DNA characteristics, Watson and Crick model. DNA replication. - Gene expression. Genetic code, transcription, translation. Gene expression regulation. - Genetics. The composition of the genome. - Mutations: types and effects. Spontaneous mutations. Mutagenesis by chemical and physical agents. - Genome Organization. - Chromatin: composition and structure. - Chromosomes: structural patterns, karyotype, anomalies. - The cell cycle. Mitosis - Sexual and meiosis reproduction. Gametogenesis. Meiotic Errors: Aneuploids. The gene dosage and inactivation of the X chromosome, the determination of sex in the embryo. - Genetics. Transmission of hereditary characters, Mendel's laws. Genotype and phenotype, autosomal and sex-related inheritance. Interpretation and discussion of genealogical trees. Genetics of blood groups. Methods of transmission of genetic diseases in humans, calculation of risks. Molecular Diagnosis.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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Assessment for learning will be through a written multiple choice. 20 questions in each test. Test is formulated by an automated system by the "Centro docimologico di Ateneo". Basically, questions are randomly chosen from a database made by the teacher. Questions are randomly mixed in each test. A question and an answer sheet are nominated for each student. Answer sheet are automatically read by the system and results are sent to the teacher.
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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The assessment of learning outcomes envisages a written test to ensure knowledge of the topics under consideration. The written test potentially covers all the topics listed in the program. It is articulated in groups of question-related to the main themes of the course (life macromolecules, cell biology, cell interactions, genetic information flow, mendelian inheritance, human genetics). Items are formulated as multiple answer questions and open answer questions. The answer to each item requires knowledge of biological terminology, ability to interpret genealogy trees, ability to systematically connect knowledge of biology and genetic molecules, ability to describe and exemplify biological structures. The examination will be validated with a minimum score of 18/30. The overall evaluation of the answers to the questions is expressed in thirty/30. To help the student to understand the contents and the formulation of the items, the examination tests submitted in the previous year will be discussed in the classroom with the students of the following year.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Campbell et al. Biologia e genetica Pearson 2015
M Samaja e R.Paroni Chimica e biochimica. Per le lauree triennale dell'area biomedica Piccin 2016
Solomon et al. Elementi di Biologia EdiSES 2017
Sadava et al. Elementi di Biologia e genetica Bologna, Zanichelli 2014
Catani et all Appunti di biochimica (Edizione 2) piccin 2017 978-88-299-2843-9
Terry A. Brown conoscere la biochimica (Edizione 1) Zanichelli ed., Bologna 2018




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