Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Vicenza)

Morphological and functional fundamentals of life (2016/2017)

Course code
Anna Maria Chiarini

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FISIOLOGIA 3 BIO/09-PHYSIOLOGY INF VI - 1° anno 1° sem Roberto Poltronieri
ANATOMIA UMANA 3 BIO/16-HUMAN ANATOMY INF VI - 1° anno 1° sem Mirco Galie'
ISTOLOGIA 1 BIO/17-HISTOLOGY INF VI - 1° anno 1° sem Anna Maria Chiarini

Learning outcomes

The course introduces the student to the ability of describing the human’s body structure from the macroscopic level to the microscopic level in health conditions and to know the essential morphologic characteristics of systems, organs, tissues, cells and subcellular structures of the human body and their main related Morphofunctional. It also proposes the study of the physiological phenomena of the various systems, in a holistic view , from the cell to the whole organism and to recognize the principles of homeostasis and the control mechanisms that oversee them and the major adjustments in non- basal conditions.


1) Cellular homeostasis
2) Action potential and synaptic transmission
3) Skeletal muscle
4) Cardiac autorhythmicity and cardiac impulse propagation
5) Heart nervous control
6) Excitement and cardiac contractility
7) Cardiac reflexes
8) Stroke volume
9) Cardiac output
10) ECG and cardiac cycle
11) Cardiac work and metabolism
12) Hemodynamic principles of the cardiovascular system
13) Vascular resistance
14) Capillaires, veins and lymphatics
15) Blood pressure
16) Cardiovascolar control
17) Respiratory mechanism
18) Pulmonary volumes and capacities
19) Ventilation and perfusion
20) Gas diffusion
21) Respiratory gas transport
22) Respiratory control
23) Nephron
24) Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow
25) Reabsorption and secretion renal
26) Urine concentration and dilution
27) Idric and elecrolyte balance
28) Acid-base balance
29) Urination
30) Smooth muscle
31) Gastrointestinal physiology
32) Esophageal and gastric motility
33) Intestinal motility
34) Salivary secretion
35) Gastric secretion
36) Pancreatic secretion
37) Liver and gallbladder
38) Secretion and absorption in the intestine
39) Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic control)
40) Adrenergic and cholinergic receptors

Cytology: eukaryotic cell: plasma membrane, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic organelles (endoplasmic reticulum:rough and smooth, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria,ribosomes, lysosomes).
Cytoskeleton (general structure and function),nuclear envelope, nucleus (chromatin, DNA organization and chromosomes),nucleolus, cell cycle (mitosis).
Histology: epithelial tissues, characteristic features of epithelial cells. Types of epithelia:
Covering or lining epithelia, glandular epithelia (exocrine and endocrine glands: examples).
Connettive tissue: cells of connective tissue: fibroblasts and residential cells. Fibers: collagen, reticular fibers, elastic fibers, ground substance.
Adipose tissue: white and brown
Cartilage: hyaline, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage. Cells and the matrix.
Bone: bone cells, bone matrix.
Blood: cells and serum/plasma.
Muscle tissue: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle. Cells and organization.
Central and peripheral nervous system: neurons and glial cells.

JUNQUEIRA'S Basic Histology - Text & Atlas (12th Edition)
Anthony L. Mescher
McGraw Hill Lange

Introduction to the study of human anatomy. The general structure of the organism and the anatomical terminology: anatomical position; surfaces and section planes; movements; parenchymatous viscera; hollow viscera; neurovascular bundles. Topographic anatomy: functions of the human body: the body surface; cavity; chest; abdomen; neck; head, limbs. Skin: microscopic structure; skin adnexa; mammary gland. Skeleton and joints: general structure of the skeleton. Types of bones. Classification of joints. Skull, general structure: neurocranium and splanchnocranium. Standard front, side, occipital, basal. Description of the individual cranial bones. Spinal column and rib cage. Pelvis. Shoulder Girdle and upper limb bones. Pelvic girdle and lower limb bones. Muscular system: types of muscle tissue and their functional differentiation. Muscles of the head and neck; muscles of the trunk; pelvic muscles; limb muscles. Digestive system: general organization: the oral cavity; tongue and teeth; pharynx; oesophagus; stomach; intestine; pancreas; liver; biliary tract; gallbladder; peritoneum. Respiratory system: external nose and nasal cavities; larynx; trachea; bronchia; lungs; pleura. Urinary system: general information; kidney; renal pelvis; ureter; bladder; male urethra and prostate; female urethra. Female genital tract: ovary; fallopian tube; uterus; vagina; external genitalia; placenta. male genital system: generality; testicle; sperm ducts; external genitalia. Endocrine system: topography, structure and function of the main endocrine glands. Cardiovascular system: generality; heart; arteries; microcirculation; veins; pulmonary circulation; systemic circulation; arteries and veins of the largest circulation; elements of foetal circulation. Blood. Lymphatic system: lymph; lymph nodes; thymus; spleen; lymphatics. Central nervous system: spinal cord; brainstem; cerebellum; diencephalon; forebrain; description of the main sensory and motor systems. Peripheral nervous system: general organization; cranial nerves; spinal nerves; autonomic nervous system. Sense organs: the auditory-vestibular apparatus; visual apparatus.

Assessment methods and criteria

Multiple choice test

Examination: written open questions with suggestions.
A written intermediate test regarding the first part of the program is offered during the course. The intermediate test is valid until the end of the academic year. Students that have not passed successfully the intermediate test must repeat the complete program examination. When the complete test has been positively passed it must not be attended again.

quizz test

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Stanfield CL Fisiologia (Edizione 5) EdiSES 2017 9788879599726
Sica G., Di Primio R., Armato U., Bani D., Baroni T., et al. Istologia per le professioni sanitarie (Edizione 1) Idelson-Gnocchi 2015 978-88-7947-593-8
Anthony L. Mescher Junqueira Istologia Testo e Atlante, VI Edizione Italiana a cura di Ubaldo Armato, Anna Chiarini, Ilaria Pierpaola Dal Prà, Raffaella Pacchiana. (Edizione 6) PICCIN 2012 978-88299-2166-9

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