Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Trento)

Pathophysiology applied at Nursing (2012/2013)

Course code
Stefano Dusi

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE 2 BIO/14-PHARMACOLOGY Lezioni 1° anno II° sem. Ugo Moretti
INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA 3 MED/45-NURSING Lezioni 1° anno II° sem. Letizia Prosperi

Learning outcomes

The course introduces the student to the basic concepts of major diseases and the fundamental pathogenetic processes correlate to cell changes, the organ function, homeostatic mechanisms, and clinical manifestations of disease. It is also proposed the study of the basic principles of pharmacology, in particular pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms and introduces the student to understand and assess the benefit and risk profile of medicines. It is also proposed to develop in the student an approach oriented to the definition of the problems, the choice of prevention interventions and alterations management of respiratory function and elimination, the recognition and multidimensional assessment of pain.


General pathology :
• Introduction to general pathology. Concepts of homeostasis and functional reserve of organs. The disease: definition, causes (congenital and acquired diseases); concept of pathogenesis.
• cellular pathology: General concepts: steady state of cells and tissues and its alterations:
a) degenerative changes in the cells (reversible and irreversible cell damage) and cell death (necrosis, apoptosis). Types of necrosis
b) Amendments of volumetric cells (hypertrophy, atrophy, atrophy) and their causes
c) numerical modifications of cells (hyperplasia, hypoplasia, aplasia) and their causes
d) Alterations of cellular differentiation processes (metaplasia, anaplasia, dysplasia).

• Inflammation: General concepts: inflammation as a reaction of the body to harmful agents
Types of inflammation:
a) Acute inflammation:
b) Chronic inflammation:
- General Manifestations of inflammation (Fever, leukocytosis, synthesis of acute phase proteins, muscle breakdown, changes in serum iron and zinchemia, endocrine disorders, etc. ...)
• The healing process of a wound
• General oncology:
• General Hemostasis: General observations about the normal hemostatic mechanisms.
A) Deficit of hemostatic mechanisms: bleeding disorders
B) Thrombosis:

• Immunology
- Immune response: natural immunity and specific immunity. organs primary and secondary lymphoid. NK cells.
- B and T cells: origin, characteristics and activation mode.
- Concept of antigen.
- Antibodies: characteristics and role in defensive processes
- Overview of immune deficiencies
- Autoimmunity: causes and and examples of autoimmune diseases.
- The hypersensitivity reactions: General mechanisms of local and generalized hypersensitivity reactions (anaphylaxis, cytotoxic reactions, immune complex, delayed hypersensitivity): Examples of the most common hypersensitivity reactions.

Farmacology : • General principles of pharmacology:
• Pharmacodynamics:
• Pharmacokinetics:
• Adverse drug reactions (How to study, spontaneous reporting, the role of the nurse in pharmacovigilance)
• Chemotherapy:
• The anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)


• Basic needs of the cells: contribution of O2, nutrients and elimination of metabolites, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and acid-base intake. Anemia
• Body fluid and electrolyte balance.
• pathophysiology of Endocrine system
• pathophysiology of respiratory system
• pathophysiology of cardiovascular system
pathophysiology of urinary system
pathophysiology of digestive system
• Suffering of the central nervous system as a result of metabolic disorders (hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypoglycaemia, hypertonia and extracellular hypotonia, hyperammonemia).

• Physical examination: the methods, the concept of head-standing assessment.
Physical examination of the following systems:
a) seed coats (color, moisture, firmness and temperature) and appendages (hair and nails), and primary lesions of cutaneous b) the head
c) eye (visual field, movements extraocular, eyelids, conjunctiva and sclera, pupils and pupillary reflex)
d) ear (hearing loss tinnitus)
e) chest and lungs (shape, sounds respiratory)
f) abdomen (abdominal quadrants - pelvic, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, peristalsis, bowel sounds.
g) vascular function (perfusion tissue, capillary refill, phlebitis)

• Body care and care management of self-care deficit
• Pain: pain models (acute, postoperative, procedural, cancer and chronic - recurring), mode of assessment of chronic and acute pain: guiding principles, assess the size of the pain, for measuring instruments.
• Urinary phaseout: the signs and symptoms more frequent in urination (polyuria, oliguria, dysuria, ...) and major alterations (urinary tract infections, incontinence and urinary retention)
• Bowel elimination: the more common signs and symptoms in intestinal disorders (flatulence, melena, tenesmus ...) and major alterations (constipation, fecal impaction, diarrhea, fecal incontinence and hemorrhoids)
• Breathing: general assessment and definition of the main alterations (hypoxia, cyanosis, dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, bronchial obstruction, sputum and pathological breaths)

Assessment methods and criteria

written exam

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
G.M. Pontieri Elementi di Patologia generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (Edizione 3) Piccin 2012 978-88-299-2130-0
Hollway -Saiani L. Brugnolli A Piani di assistenza in medicina e chirurgia (Edizione 2) Ed. Sorbona 2008 978-88-7947-466-5

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