Combined Bachelor's + Master's degree in Dentistry and Dental Prosthetics

Physics

Course code
4S00004
Name of lecturer
Federico Boschi
Coordinator
Federico Boschi
Number of ECTS credits allocated
6
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS
Language of instruction
Italian
Period
LEZIONI 1° SEMESTRE 1° ANNO dal Oct 14, 2019 al Dec 20, 2019.

Learning outcomes

The course aims to give students basic concepts regarding the main physical quantities of Kinematics, Dynamics, static, fluid dynamics, optics, thermodynamics and electrology in order to cope with simple physics problems of biomedical interest. The student awareness of the benefits and risks associated with the use of x-ray machines and the obligations under the Employer and the Medical Practitioner required by current law on radiation protection.

Syllabus

Program
Physical quantities, vectors, exercises. Derivative of a function, calculation, examples and exercises. Fermat's theorem and Rolle’s theorem.

MECHANICS:
Position, displacement, various dimensional motion, rectilinear motion. Average speed and instantaneous speed. Exercises.
Acceleration, rectilinear motion uniformly accelerated. Exercises. Moto two-dimensional radial acceleration, tangential acceleration. Uniform circular motion. Exercises.
Motion of bodies. Projectile motion. Exercises. Laws of Motion (I, II, III). Momentum. Inertial mass. Weight. Exercises.
Inclined smooth. Pulley. Friction forces. Harmonic motion. Elastic force. Exercises. Work of a force. Kinetic energy. Kinetic energy theorem. Conservative forces. Potential energy.
Gravitational potential energy. Theorem of mechanical energy. Exercises
Conservation of momentum. Elastic collisions, inelastic, perfectly inelastic. Exercises. Law of universal gravitation. Power. Exercises.

Rotating motion of rigid bodies (overview) and moment of a force.
Levers of first, second and third types, levers of the human body. The jaw.

FLUID DYNAMICS:
Pressure, density, specific gravity, the law of Stevin, hydraulic press, barometer Torricelli tube manometer open, Archimedes' principle. Exercises.
Ideal fluid, stationary bike, motorcycle not turbulent flow. Continuity equation. Venturi. Exercises. Theorem of Torricelli (tank). Applications. Exercises.
Stokes force. Friction in fluids.

Viscous fluids. Viscosity, resistance of a conduit. Poiseuille formula.

THERMODYNAMICS:
Thermal expansion of solids and liquids (linear, surface, volume). Exercises. Contact thermal, thermal equilibrium, zero law of thermodynamics, gas thermometers, absolute temperature. Perfect gas. Ideal gas law. Exercises. Heat, internal energy, mechanical equivalent of heat, heat capacity, specific heat, latent heat. Exercises.
The law of thermodynamics. Work and heat in thermodynamic processes. The application of the principle. Cyclic transformations, free expansion, adiabatic transformations, isobaric, isochoric, isothermal.
The principle of thermodynamics (of Kelvin-Planck, Clausius, Kelvin). Heat engine, thermal efficiency. Exercises
Refrigerator, coefficient of performance. Exercises.

ELECTROLOGY – ELECTROMAGNETISM:
Electric charges. Law of conservation of charge. Insulators, conductors, electroscope. Coulomb force, electric field. Exercises. Potential energy, the electrostatic potential.
Lines and equipotential surfaces. Electrical capacity. Electricity generator. Electricity. Ohm's law, resistance and resistivity. Exercises. Electrical power, Joule effect. AC. DC circuits. Resistors in series and parallel. Exercises.
Magnetic poles, magnetic field strength. Force of electrical wire. Charge in a magnetic field, Lorentz force, Larmor radius. Magnetic field generated by an electrical wire. Field in a solenoid.
Forces acting between wires carrying current. Exercises. Electromagnetic waves (generation, spectrum, wavelengths).

OPTICS:
Principles of geometrical optics.
Reflection, laws of reflection, flat mirror. Concave spherical mirror, the law of conjugate points, fire objects, fire images, construction of images. Real images, virtual images. Linear magnification. Concave spherical mirrors. Exercises. Refraction, laws of refraction, refractive index absolute and relative. Diopter spherical diopter plan, examples.
Thin converging lenses, thin lenses divergent. Law of manufacturers of lenses. Construction of the images. Human eye: myopia and hyperopia.

X-RAY
X-ray production processes, X-ray tube. Absorption of X-rays, photoelectric effect, Compton and production of pairs. Formation of analog and digital radiographic image. Overview of dosimetry: absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose, emission from source.

 Reference books Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note scannicchio fisica biomedica Giancoli Fisica. Principi e applicazioni Jewett & Serway Principi di Fisica vol.1 (Edizione 4) Edises 2008 978-88-7959-419-6

Assessment methods and criteria

Written exam with to 10-15 exercises (open questions). About 2 hours.
No books or notes. Bring calculator and pen.

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