Bachelor's degree in Physiotherapy (to qualify as a physiotherapist) (Verona)

Propaedeutic physical and biological sciences (2015/2016)

Course code
4S01837
Credits
8
Coordinator
Maria Romanelli

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
BIOCHIMICA 2 BIO/10-BIOCHEMISTRY FISIO VR 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Giovanni Gotte
FISICA APPLICATA 2 FIS/07-APPLIED PHYSICS FISIO VR 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Pasquina Marzola
STATISTICA MEDICA 2 MED/01-MEDICAL STATISTICS FISIO VR 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Simone Accordini
BIOLOGIA APPLICATA 2 BIO/13-EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY FISIO VR 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Maria Romanelli

Learning outcomes

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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Basic knowledge of general and organic chemistry preparatory for biochemistry. Structure-function relationship of the most important biological macromolecules and of the metabolic regulation at the molecular level. Cross-talk between the different biochemical pathways and the energy level changes associated.
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MM: FISICA APPLICATA
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The Course is designed to provide to the student the basic knowledge of physics, with specific focus in those principles and laws that will allow to understand biomedical topics.
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MM: STATISTICA MEDICA
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The course "Medical Statistics" is aimed at providing the basic tools for summarizing the information collected on a sample of subjects, for calculating the probability of one or more health events, and for generalizing the information collected on a sample to the target population.
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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Knowing the contribution of biological macromolecules to the biological organization, the functioning of the structures of living organisms and the most relevant aspects of human biology; describe the basic concepts of genetics, most common genetic disease and understand the mode of transmission of hereditary characteristics in humans.

Syllabus

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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PREPARATORY CHEMISTRY (several notions are included in the basic knowledge required) 1. Atomic structure and periodic properties of the elements: matter composition, atom, atomic particles; atomic theory; quantum numbers, and orbitals; electronic configuration, periodic table and chemical reactivity of the elements; electronic affinity, electronegativity. 2. The chemical bond: molecules and ions; ionic and covalent bond; intermolecular forces; hydrogen bond. 3. Solutions and acid-base reactions: concentration of the solutions, acid-base theories of Arrhenius and Brőnsted-Lowry; hydracids, hydroxides, oxyacids; acid-base reactions; pH and buffer solutions. 4. Organic chemistry notions: carbon atom properties; hybrid orbitals; organic compounds classification: functional groups; hydrocarbons; alcohols, ethers, thiols, amines, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides. BIOCHEMISTRY 1. Constitutive elements of the living matter: polymeric structure of the biological macromolecules. 2. Protein structure and function: aminoacid classification, buffering power, peptide bond, levels of protein structure; fibrous and globular proteins; hemoglobin and myoglobin: structure, function, factors influencing the oxygen bond; hemoglobin variants; enzymes: classification, role in the chemical reactions, regulation of the enzymatic activity. 3. Vitamins: hydro- and lypo-soluble vitamins; co-enzymes. 4. Bio-energetics: metabolism; chemical transformations in the cell; spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions of the metabolic reactions; ATP as “energy exchange coin”; biologically relevant redox reactions. 5. Carbohydrates structure and metabolism: mono- and disaccharides; polysaccharides; glycoconjugates; glycolysis and its regulation; gluconeogenesis; hints of the penthose phosphate pathway; synthesis of the glycogen. 6. Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondria; acetyl-CoA synthesis; citric acid cycle control; respiratory chain and electron transport; ATP synthesis. 7. Lipids structure and metabolism: structural lipids and biological membranes; cholesterol; stock-reserve lipids; lipids digestion and fatty acid β-oxydation; keton bodies formation; hints of fatty acids biosynthesis. 8. Aminoacid metabolism: hints of gluco- and keto-forming aminoacids; transamination and oxidative deamination; the urea cycle.
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MM: FISICA APPLICATA
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Introduction Physical quantities, Base physical quantities and derived physical quantities. Standards of length, mass and time. MKS and cgs systems of units. Cartesian frame of reference. Vector and scalar quantities. Components and magnitude of a vector. Addition and subtraction of vectors. Unit vectors. The scalar and vector products of vectors. Mechanics Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration. Average and instantaneous velocity. Particle under constant velocity. Average and instantaneous acceleration. Particle under constant acceleration. Forces . The principles of dynamics . Law of universal gravity. Weight. Friction force. Circular uniform motion. Rigid body, body center of mass and center of gravity. Moment of force. Equilibrium of a rigid boby. Definition of Work and Energy. Kinetic energy. Work-kinetic energy theorem. Conservative forces. Potential energy. Law of conservation of mechanical energy. Power. Fluids Definition of Fluid. Density. Pressure. Archimede’s principle. Variation of pressure with depth (Stevin’s Law). Pascal’s Law. Measurement of atmospheric pressure or Torricelli’s experiment. Pressure Units: atm, mmHg, Pa. Pressure measurements. Archimede’s principle. Fluid dynamics. Bernoulli’s equationU-tube manometers. Flow. Measurement of arterial blood pressure. Perfect fluid. Continuity equation for flow and its application to blood circulation. Bernoulli’s theorem and its application to stenosis and aneurysm. Real fluid and viscosity. Blood viscosity. Poiseuille’s Law. Physiological effects of hydrostatic pressure. Thermal phenomena and gases Temperatue, heat. Thermal expansion. Mercury thermometer. Celsius, Kelvin anf Farheneit Scale. Thermal capacity, specific heat. Mechanical equivalent of heat. Gas laws: First and second Gay-Lussac laws. The absolute temperature (Kelvin Scale). Boyle’s law. Avogadro’s law. Ideal gas law. Thermodynamic systems and process. First and second law of thermodynamics. Heat transport by conduction, convection and radiation. Electrical phenomena Electric charge. Coloumb’s law. Electic field, potential energy and electric potential. Electric current. Ohm’s law. Resistance and resistivity. Conductors and insulators. The electronvolt. Electromagnetism (hints). Waves Mechanical and electromagnetic waves; transverse and longitudinal waves. Period, frequency, wavelength and propagation speed. Amplitude, energy, intensity of wave, Mechanical waves: the sound. Electromagnetic waves, the speed of light, spectrum of electromagnetic waves; the photon energy. Suggested books: 1) The test can be prepared using a physics textbook for high schools 2) Borsa F., Introzzi G.L. Scannicchio D., Elementi di Fisica per Diplomi di indirizzo medico biologico, Edizioni Unicopli, 2003. 3) Monaco V., Sacchi R., Solano A., Elementi di Fisica, McGrawHill
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MM: STATISTICA MEDICA
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1) Medicine, scientific research and statistics 2) The measurement process in medicine: measurement scales, validity, precision and accuracy 3) Statistical variables and frequency distributions 4) How to summarize the distribution of one or more variables: measures of location and dispersion, contingency tables 5) An introduction to probability theory: definitions, basic rules of probability, independent and conditional probability, random variables, Gaussian distribution 6) How to assess the validity of a diagnostic tool: sensitivity and specificity, ROC curves 7) An introduction to statistical inference: an outline of sampling theory, the sampling distribution of an estimator, confidence interval, the elements of a statistical test (null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis, type I and type II errors, power of a statistical test, p-value), z test and t-test
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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Main characteristics of living organisms, cell structures of prokaryotes and eukaryotes; structure of viral particles; cell cycle and its regulation; reproduction and development; molecular mechanisms of hereditary transmission of genetic information; the chromosomal basis of heredity, the human genome, Mendelian genetics, pedigrees, the gene mutations

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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Written test: 10 multiple choice questions (2 points each), plus 2 open questions (0 to 5 points each).
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MM: FISICA APPLICATA
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Written test (multiple choice test) followed by an optional oral test.
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MM: STATISTICA MEDICA
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Written examination
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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Written and oral examination

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Capbell et al. Biologia e genetica Pearson 2015




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