Combined Bachelor's + Master's degree in Medicine and Surgery

Chemistry and Biological chemistry - CHIMICA E PROPEDEUTICA BIOCHIMICA

Course code
4S01134
Name of lecturer
Mariarita Bertoldi
Number of ECTS credits allocated
7
Academic sector
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY
Language of instruction
Italian
Period
1° semestre dal Sep 30, 2019 al Jan 10, 2020.

To show the organization of the course that includes this module, follow this link * Course organization

Lesson timetable

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Learning outcomes

Knowledge of the features of elements and compounds and of the principles that allow to understand their behaviour in biological systems; knowledge of reactivity of the different classes of organic compounds; to acquire of a solid chemical basis to allow interpretation of biochemical phenomena at a molecular level; knowledge of the structure-function relationship of proteins, sugars and lipids, of enzyme properties, and their reaction kinetics and catalytic mechanisms, of vitamins and hormones; knowledge of the pathways through which the livings synthetize and degrade sugars, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides, taking particular consideration to production and consumption of energy.

Syllabus

General chemistry
-The matter: elements, compounds, mixtures, nomenclature. Measures and moles.
- Chemical reactions and equations: precipitation, neutralization (or salification). Oxide acids and basic oxides. Amphoter elements. Acid and base reactions (Arrhenius). Principle of redox reactions: definition of oxidizing and reducing.
-Stechometry. Avogadro's mole and number concept. Concentration concept: molarity and percentage by weight and volume.
-Gas: Boyle's Law, Charles's Law, Avogadro's Principle, the Law of Ideal Gases, Dalton's partial pressure law, concept of real gas, density, molecular motion, diffusion and effusion, molecular motion and speed: kinetic model of gases , Maxwell distribution, Joule-Thomson effect.
-Termochemistry: concept of heat and energy, heat measurement, exothermic and endothermic reactions, enthalpy, standard enthalpy, standard enthalpy formation, state changes: correlation with enthalpy. Steaming, melting, sublimation and heating curves. Reaction Entalpy.
-Atome structure: Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr models. Lightenings: wave and corpuscular nature (as many as photons), speed of light. Spectral lines, electromagnetic spectrum: wavelength, frequency, and energy. Electrons: waves and energy levels. Absorption Concept and Law of Lambert-Beer. Atomic models: meaning of Schrödinger's equation and orbital concept. Correlation between quantum and orbital numbers: hierarchical structure of layers, substrates and orbital. Electronic spin. Hydrogen atom electronic structure.
-Multielectronic atoms: concept of orbital equals the main quantum number and different energy: screen effect and penetration. Orbital energy, aufbau or layer construction, electronic configuration of atoms, electronic ion configuration, valence, correlations between electronic structure and periodic table (historical importance ... Mendeleev)
-The periodic character of atomic properties: atomic radius, ion ray, ionization energy, metallic character, inert torque, diagonal correlations, electronic affinity. Generality on block elements s, p, d and f.
-The chemical bonds: ionic bonds, Lewis symbols, covalent bonds, and the rule of the loop. Lewis structures, resonance and formal charge. Radical and biradical, expanded valence. Lewis acids and bases. Ionic bonds and covalent bonds: electronegativity and correction of the ionic and covalent model. Homeworm and heteropolar covalent bonds.
From atom to molecule: atomic and molecular orbital. VSEPR model and solitary pairs, multiple ties, distortion caused by lonely pairs, solitary pairs of molecules on the central cell. Polar links and polar molecules. Binding strength, tie length, angle. Orbital and Ties: Sigma Bond and more piGreek bond, Hybrid orbital concept, special attention to carbon hybridization: simple, double, triple carbon-carbon bonds.
-Intermolecular forces: London forces (or Van del Waals), dipole-dipole interactions, hydrogen bonds. Some liquid properties: viscosity and surface tension. Some concepts on solids: crystals and ionic structures. Stage changes: vapor pressure (or tension), boiling, solidification and fusion, state diagrams, cooling curves and critical properties.
-Solutions: solubility (solute and solvent), factors influencing solubility, Henry's law. Solubility, enthalpy and disorder. Colligative properties: Concentration measures, steam pressure lowering, boiling point elevation and freezing point lowering. Osmosis.
- Chemical equilibrium: concept of reversibility, equilibrium constant, heterogeneous equilibrium and gaseous phase. Applying the equilibrium constant to the chemical reaction. Balance and change of conditions.
Acid and Base Reaction: Acids and bases according to Arrhenius, Brønsted-Lowry and Lewis (nucleophilic and electrophilic concept). Protons, acids and conjugate bases, pH and water. Acids and weak bases, equilibrium, constant acid dissociation, pKa, pH of acid solutions and weak bases, Hendersson-Hasselbach equation. Ions such as acids or bases, pH of saline solutions, titrations, buffer solutions, solubility balances. Relationship structure-acidity. Titration curve of a weak acid. PH of a buffer solution.
-Termodynamics: first principle and heat, work, inner energy and enthalpy. Second principle and spontaneous transformations, entropy and disorder, standard entropy. Free energy: system and environment, free reaction standard energy, free energy and balance.
-Electrochemistry: reversal and balancing of redox reactions: electron transfer. Galvanic, potential and potential standard cells. Faraday's constant. Potential standard and constant equilibrium, Nernst equation. Electrolysis.
Chemical chemistry: concentration and reaction rate, kinetic equation, first order kinetics and half-life, and second-order kinetics. Temperature and impact effects. Catalysis concept. Notes on reaction mechanisms.

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
-Carbon: chemical bond and isomerism. Review of homo-and heteropolar covalent bonding, simple and multiple bonds C-C, valence, isomerism, resonance, structure formula, bonds  and , orbital sp3.
-Acrocaburs: alcohols and cycloalcans, conformational and geometric isomers, cis-trans isomers. IUPAC nomenclature rules. Alchens and alchins. Orbitals sp2 and sp. Rule of Markovnikov. Physical-physical properties. Hydrocarbons and acidity. Hydrocarbons and oxidation.
-Benzene and aromatic compounds.
-Stereoisomeria: chirality, configuration d, l and R, S. Projections of Fischer. Optical activity. Enantiomers and racemic mixture.
- Functional Groups and Definition of Families of Organic Compounds: Alcohols and Thiols, Ethers and Epoxies, The Carbonyl Group, nucleophilic and electrophile (Lewis) concept: Aldehydes and ketones, Cheto-enol tautomeria. Carboxylic acids, the distinction between alcoholic and acidic oxidants. Amines and nitrogen compounds.
-High hydrogen atoms depending on location, aldehyde condensation.
-Legami: esters and thioester, anhydrous, amidic (or peptidic). Ties and energy.
- Organic reactions: nucleophilic and electrophilic addition, hydration, halogenation and hydrogenation, nucleophilic substitution of type SN1 and SN2. Elimination of type E1 and E2.
-Macromolecules: fatty acids: saturated and unsaturated, even or odd. Glycerol and triglycerides. Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Definition and classification, chirality, semiacetal structures, anomeria and mutarotation, piranosic and furanosic structures. Reduction and oxidation of monosaccharides.

Propedeutic biochemistry
- Proteins
- Enzyme
- Vitamins
- Lipid
- Glucids

Assessment methods and criteria

Written to test the basic knowledges of chemistry followed by an oral.
The oral part aims to evaluate the competences acquired by the student to interpret physio-pathological events with a molecular and biochemical approach





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