Bachelor's degree in Physiotherapy (to qualify as a physiotherapist) (Rovereto)

Propaedeutic physical and biological sciences (2019/2020)


Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
BIOCHIMICA 2 BIO/10-BIOCHEMISTRY TERP 1A1S Giovanni Gotte
FISICA APPLICATA 2 FIS/07-APPLIED PHYSICS FISIO ROV 1A1S Gianluca Lattanzi
STATISTICA DESCRITTIVA 1 MED/01-MEDICAL STATISTICS FISIO ROV 1A1S Francesca Locatelli
BIOLOGIA APPLICATA 2 BIO/13-EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY Lezioni CLID Rov. 1 semestre Elisabetta Trabetti

Learning outcomes

The aim of this course is to provide basic skills of biology, biochemistry, physics and statistics, main-ly focusing on the most useful aspects for understanding and investigating biomedical problems as-sociated with physiotherapy and to provide the foundations of the experimental method for modern scientific and technological disciplines, to get students consolidate scientific accuracy and critical evaluation of experimental data. At the end of the course students will have reached the necessary skills to understand, describe and analyse natural, biological and physical phenomena, regarding bi-omedical issues. Students will be able to explain molecular and cellular mechanisms of the human body and to understand the pathogenic meaning of alterations. Students will be able to report topics related to aforementioned fields in a precise way, with critical evaluation and appropriate scientific language. Finally, students will have developed abilities to approach further topics, which will be part of next year courses, with good autonomy. APPLIED PHYSICS: The aim is to provide basic knowledge of physical quantity and fundamental laws of physics, par-ticularly of mechanics and its applications within biomedical phenomena and real situations. To ac-quire the ability to solve simple exercises of physics, mostly referring to biomechanical concepts, al-so applied to practical situations. BIOCHEMISTRY: to provide basic knowledge of organic chemistry and biochemistry, the relation between structure and function of the main biological macromolecular classes, molecular-metabolic regulation, the interconnections between biochemical processes and energetic transformations. APPLIED BIOLOGY: to provide knowledge of biology and human genetics in an evolutionary vi-sion related to the structural, functional and molecular characteristics of cellular processes of living organisms and a focus on basic mechanisms that set up cellular activity, reproduction, interaction and transmission of the normal and pathological hereditary traits in humans. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS: to provide bio-statistical knowledge, focusing on basic statistic methods for biomedical data analysis such as methods for collecting and summarizing clinical or ep-idemiological research data, probability calculations, generalizing the information collected on a sample to the population of origin, a graphic summary representation and interpretation of the main statistical results.

Syllabus

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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PREPARATORY CHEMISTRY (several notions are included in the basic knowledge required). 1. Atomic structure and periodic properties of the elements: matter composition, atom, atomic particles; atomic theory; quantum numbers, and orbitals; electronic configuration, periodic table and chemical reactivity of the elements; electronic affinity, electronegativity. 2. The chemical bond: molecules and ions; ionic and covalent bond; intermolecular forces; hydrogen bond. 3. Solutions and acid-base reactions: concentration of the solutions, acid-base theories of Arrhenius and Brőnsted-Lowry; hydracids, hydroxides, oxyacids; acid-base reactions; pH and buffer solutions. 4. Organic chemistry notions: carbon atom properties; hybrid orbitals; organic compounds classification: functional groups; hydrocarbons; alcohols, ethers, thiols, amines, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides. BIOCHEMISTRY 1. Constitutive elements of the living matter: polymeric structure of the biological macromolecules. 2. Protein structure and function: aminoacid classification, buffering power, peptide bond, levels of protein structure; fibrous and globular proteins; hemoglobin and myoglobin: structure, function, factors influencing the oxygen bond; hemoglobin variants; enzymes: classification, role in the chemical reactions, regulation of the enzymatic activity. 3. Vitamins: hydro- and lypo-soluble vitamins; co-enzymes. 4. Bio-energetics: metabolism; chemical transformations in the cell; spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions of the metabolic reactions; ATP as “energy exchange coin”; biologically relevant redox reactions. 5. Carbohydrates structure and metabolism: mono- and disaccharides; polysaccharides; glycoconjugates; glycolysis and its regulation; gluconeogenesis; hints of the penthose phosphate pathway; synthesis of the glycogen. 6. Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondria; acetyl-CoA synthesis; citric acid cycle control; respiratory chain and electron transport; ATP synthesis. 7. Lipids structure and metabolism: structural lipids and biological membranes; cholesterol; stock-reserve lipids; lipids digestion and fatty acid β-oxydation; keton bodies formation; hints of fatty acids biosynthesis. 8. Aminoacid metabolism: hints of gluco- and keto-forming aminoacids; transamination and oxidative deamination; the urea cycle. Frontal teaching is the exclusive method adopted in this Course.
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MM: FISICA APPLICATA
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Physical quantities and their measurement. Definition of a physical quantity. Unit consistency and conversions. Standards and units. Uncertainty and significant figures. The foundation of classical mechanics. Forces and motion. Newton’s laws of motion and their application. Motion description: displacement, velocity and acceleration. Work and kinetic energy. Potential energy and energy conservation. Momentum. Torque and angular momentum. Biomechanics. Lever systems in the human body. Equilibrium in the human body. Elements of mechanics of movement.
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MM: STATISTICA MEDICA
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• Use of statistics in health data • Collection and presentation of data • Measurement procedure and Variable types • Precision and accuracy of a measurement procedure • Tables 1 and 2 entries • Absolute and relative frequencies • Cumulative frequencies • Graphical representation of the data • Position and dispersion measures • Mode • Quantiles and median • Simple and weighted mean • Range and standard deviation • Coefficient of variation • Introduction to probability • Definition of probability • Rule of addition and multiplication • Independent and conditional probability • Introduction to statistical inference • The concept of statistical inference • Inference techniques • Binomial and Gauss distribution • confidence intervals • Hypothesis testing • Diagnostic and screening test • Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value of screening
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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• Characteristics of the living beings
• Chemistry of living organisms and biological molecules
• prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell: organization of the cell; internal membranes and compartmentalization; organelles, characteristics and functions: nucleus, ribosomes, RER, REL, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, cell wall, extracellular matrix. Animal and plant cells. Mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts, amyloplasts, chromoplasts) and endosymbiont theory.
• Biological membranes: structure and proposed models; passage of materials across cell membranes: passive transport (facilitated diffusion and simple), osmosis, directly and indirectly active transport, co-transport. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Anchoring, tight and gap cell junctions in animal and plant cells.
• Cell communication: types of cellular communication: endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and iuxtacrine. Sending and receiving the signal.
• Organization of DNA in chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis. DNA and proteins, nucleosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, chromosome condensation. The cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction
• DNA and its role in heredity. DNA structure and replication.
• Gene expression: transcription, genetic code and translation. Gene definition.
• DNA mutations and mutagenesis
• Hereditary character transmission and Mendel’s laws; definition of phenotype, genotype, locus, gene, dominant and recessive allele, homozygosity and heterozygosity. Segregation and independent assortment. Independence and association. Crossing-over and recombination. Genetic determination of sex. Gene interactions. Incomplete dominance, condominance, multiple alleles, epistasis and polygeny.
• The human genome: karyotype analysis and pedigrees; autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, X-linked diseases.

DIDACTIC METHOD
Attendance to lessons is mandatory.
Teaching methods consist of frontal lessons. In addition to the suggested texts, additional didactic supports are offered on the e-learning platform of the course.
Students can make an appointment directly with the teacher every time they need it throughout the academic year, by email.
Students are invited to choose a book among those indicated.

Assessment methods and criteria

Goal of the exam for the course of Propaedeutic physical and biological sciences: to verify students' advanced comprehension of the whole program topics and their capability to expose their reasoning in a critical and precise manner using an appropriate scientific terms.
6 examination sessions are foreseen in the whole Academic Year: 2 in the Winter Session after the Course ending, 2 in the Summer Session, and 2 in the Autumn session.
Students will undertake all modules if they have attended at least 75% of the frontal teaching activity of the entire Course; further information about exam organization is available in each module form.
The final mark (/out of 30) will derive from the evaluation of the 4 modules. Students will pass the examination if the overall rating of all modules, based on the weighted average of credits, is greater than or equal to 18/30. Students can retire or refuse the proposed mark.

Students, who do not pass all the 4 exam modules in the same session, will only have to cover the missing/insufficient part in one of the subsequent sessions, if only within the extra winter session of the next Academic Year. From the next summer session, students will need to take all the 4 modules.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Stefani M, Taddei N Chimica Biochimica e Biologia Applicata. Zanichelli ed., Bologna  
Solomon, Martin, Martin, Berg Elementi di Biologia (Edizione 7) EdiSES 2017 978-88-7959-938-2
Sadava, Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker Elementi di Biologia e Genetica (Edizione 5) Zanichelli 2019
Lantieri PB, Risso D, Ravera G Elementi di Statistica Medica McGraw-Hill 2007
Verlato G, Zanolin ME Esercizi di Statistica Medica, Informatica ed Epidemiologia Libreria Cortina Editrice, Verona 2000
Paul Davidovits Fisica per le professioni sanitarie UTET Università 2015 8860084490
David L Nelson, Michael M Cox I principi di biochimica di Lehninger (Edizione 7) Zanichelli 2018 9788808920690
Glantz SA Statistica per Discipline Biomediche (Edizione 6) McGraw-Hill 2007 9788838639258




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