Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Verona)

Pathophysiology applied at Nursing [Matricole dispari] (2019/2020)

Course code
4S000090
Credits
9
Coordinator
Roberto Leone

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE 2 BIO/14-PHARMACOLOGY INF VR - 1° anno 2° sem Roberto Leone
SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA 2 MED/09-INTERNAL MEDICINE INF VR - 1° anno 2° sem Antonio Carletto
INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA 3 MED/45-NURSING See the unit page See the unit page
PATOLOGIA GENERALE 2 MED/04-EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY INF VR - 1° anno 2° sem Nicola Tamassia

Learning outcomes

The course introduces the student to the basic concepts of major diseases and the fundamental pathogenetic processes, allowing them to correlate cellular homeostatic mechanisms to alterations of the organ functions and clinical manifestations of disease. Students will understand the basic principles of pharmacology, especially in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms, and the benefit and risk profile of the drugs. The course will helps students to develop an approach oriented to prevention, assessment and management of respiratory, urinary and intestinal function alteration and the multidimensional assessment of pain. PHARMACOLOGY: The course aims to provide general knowledge about the functions and the use of drug therapy, in the fields of pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance. Concepts of pharmacology are essential to the development of the nurse's own skills in management and control of drug therapies, as well in patient education. This course is preparatory to the study of the individual classes of drugs, which starts with anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs and will be completed in the clinical pharmacology module. SEMEIOTICS AND PHYSIOPATHOLOGY: The course introduces the student to the fundamental concepts of pathophysiology and semiotics, implicated in the activation of organ damage and in the development of the main diseases. The information necessary for understanding the set of events leading to the disease will be selected using a practical approach. Any further details will be reserved for the lessons that specifically deal with the organ and the apparatus. Every fundamental alteration will be explored within a specific organ and the different peculiar manifestations of the organ itself will be clarified. The lessons will also include the semeiotic part, describing the objective signs that characterize diseases. The treatment of semeiotics will be performed after treating the pathophysiology of the various organs. At the end of the course, students must be able to know the general mechanisms that lead to the disease and to identify their characteristics. CLINICAL NURSING I and II: The course offers the contents and the assistance methodology related to person's needs and to "fundamental" nursing care. The course will helps students to develop an approach oriented to prevention, assessment and management of respiratory, urinary and intestinal function alteration and the multidimensional assessment of pain. During teaching, frontal teaching methods will be privileged associated with sessions of application of the contents treated in care situations (guided exercises, video projections, clinical case analysis, testimony readings will be used to analyze and reflect on the perceptions and needs of the patients and family members). GENERAL PATHOLOGY: The course develops the preparatory contents for understanding the basic mechanisms of diseases. The following contents will be covered: the general principles and disorders of homeodynamics of complex systems, the main pathogenic esogenous and endogenous factors, biological damage, responses to damage, with particular reference to inflammation, the processes of healing and chronicity, immunity , haemostasis and thrombosis, vascular pathology and notions of general oncology. The course aims to help the student to understand the essential links between clinical analysis and fundamental mechanisms, facilitating the reading of the conceptual basis of the disease.

Syllabus

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MM: FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE
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Basic principles of Pharmacology and introduction to the drugs on the market Definition of drug, active substance, pharmaceutical product, vehicle, excipient, placebo effect Evaluation of drugs efficacy: the randomized clinical trial Different sources of drugs. How drugs enter the market Bioequivalent and biosimilar drugs Italian drug market. Drugs reimbursment by the National Health Service. OTC and SOP drugs, different types of prescriptions. Package inserts: therapeutic indications, dosages, warnings and contraindications. The off-label use International classification of drugs: Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System. How to measure drug use: the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) Pharmacodynamics Drugs classification depending on therapeutic usages. Basic principles of mechanisms of drug action: drug receptors, drug-receptor interaction: agonism and antagonism. Pharmacological, physiological and chemistry antagonisms Pharmacokinetics Drugs absorption. Main characteristics of different drug administration routes: advantages and disadvantages. Bioavailability of drugs. Food-drugs interactions Drugs distribution in the body. Carriers and efflux pumps. Factors that may influence drugs distribution: blood-brain and placental barriers Characteristics of drug metabolism. Enzyme induction and inhibition Drug clearance. Factors affecting drug clearance Definition and meaning of dose, maximum dose, daily dose, dosing, therapeutic index, clearance, half-life, peak blood levels, therapeutic range, toxic concentrations, accumulation Relationship between plasma concentrations of drugs and their action Factors to be taken into account in determining the dose of a drug, and in case of repeated administrations, dosing interval How to calculate pharmaceutical doses Pharmacotherapy Risk/benefit and cost/benefit analyses of drugs: basics. Adverse drug reactions: mechanisms and risk factors. The spontaneous reporting system of adverse drug reactions: regulation and role of nurses Antibacterial drugs: general issues and characteristics of the main classes of antibacterial drugs. Basics of antivirals and vaccines. Brief remarks on anti-cancer drugs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): epidemiology, pharmacological mechanisms, main therapeutic uses, adverse reactions
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MM: SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA
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MM: INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE
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General Pharmacology learning is assessed during the written examination of "Physiopathology applied to nursing". The test includes 65 multiple-choice questions (1 correct answer out of 4-5 ). 20 questions concerning the module of Clinical Nursing, and 15 are related to each of the 3 modules General Pharmacology, Semeiotics and Physiopathology and General Pathology . The exam is passed when the student answers correctly to at least 11 questions related to Clinical Nursing and 8 concerning each of the other 3 modules.
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MM: SEMEIOTICA E FISIOPATOLOGIA
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MM: INFERMIERISTICA CLINICA
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Taglialatela Conforti Cuzzolin Leone Mattioli Moretti Pignataro Vanzetta Farmacologia per le lauree triennali e magistrali II Edizione (Edizione 2) Sorbona 2019
Giuseppe Pontieri Elementi di fisiopatologia generale per corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (Edizione 3) Piccin 2012
Taylor - Lillis - Lynn Principi fondamentali dell'assistenza infermierisitica (Edizione 8) Piccin 2018
G.M. Pontieri Elementi di Patologia generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (Edizione 3) Piccin 2012 978-88-299-2130-0
Emanuel Rubin, Howard M. Reisner Patologia Generale. L'essenziale Piccin 2015 978-88-299-2740-1




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