Combined Bachelor's + Master's degree in Medicine and Surgery

Systematic pathology II (2019/2020)

Course code
4S01146
Credits
17
Coordinator
Enzo Bonora

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
CHIRURGIA VASCOLARE 1 MED/22-VASCULAR SURGERY 2° semestre 1°- 5° anno Alberto Scuro
MALATTIE DELL'APPARATO RESPIRATORIO 2 MED/10-RESPIRATORY DISEASES 2° semestre 1°- 5° anno Marcello Ferrari
CARDIOCHIRURGIA 1 MED/23-HEART SURGERY 2° semestre 1°- 5° anno Giuseppe Faggian
CARDIOLOGIA 2 MED/11-CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES 2° semestre 1°- 5° anno Flavio Luciano Ribichini
CHIRURGIA TORACICA 1 MED/21-THORACIC SURGERY 2° semestre 1°- 5° anno Alessio Rungatscher
ENDOCRINOLOGIA E MALATTIE DEL METABOLISMO 3 MED/13-ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM 2° semestre 1°- 5° anno Enzo Bonora
Paolo Moghetti
NEFROLOGIA 3 MED/14-NEPHROLOGY 2° semestre 1°- 5° anno Giovanni Gambaro
Gianluigi Zaza
DIDATTICA PRATICA DI NEFROLOGIA, ENDOCRINOLOGIA, CARDIOLOGIA 3 NN-- See the unit page See the unit page
ANATOMIA PATOLOGICA II 1 MED/08-PATHOLOGY 2° semestre 1°- 5° anno Guido Martignoni

Learning outcomes

The course aims to provide theoretical and practical knowledge on the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical, diagnostics and prognosis of the main diseases of the endocrine, metabolic, respiratory, cardiovascular, renal systems. Morevover, the key elements to describe and identify the pathologic features correlated to the above disorders will be presented.

Syllabus

Module: CHIRURGIA TORACICA
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Respiratory failure (IR)
Bronchiectasis
Interstitial lung disease
Pulmonary embolism and pulmonary heart
Lung cancer
Pleural effusions, pleurisy, neoplasms of the pleura
Solitary pulmonary nodule
Pneumothorax (PNX)
Pathology of the mediastinum
Lung transplantation

Module: MALATTIE DELL'APPARATO RESPIRATORIO
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Respiratory failure (IR)
Syndrome of apnea during sleep
Chronic bronchitis, bronchial asthma and pulmonary emphysema
Bronchiectasis
Interstitial lung disease
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
acute bronchitis and bacterial pneumonia, viral, fungal
pulmonary tuberculosis
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Pulmonary embolism and pulmonary heart
lung cancer
Pleural effusions, pleurisy, neoplasms of the pleura
Solitary pulmonary nodule
Pneumothorax (PNX)
Pathology of the mediastinum


Module: ANATOMIA PATOLOGICA II
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Endocrine pathology
Pulmonary pathology


Module: ENDOCRINOLOGIA E MALATTIE DEL METABOLISMO
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Topics
Hypoglycemia
Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas
Diabetes Mellitus
Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism
Hyperuricemia and gout
Metabolic syndrome
Cardiovascular risk factors
Disorders of the anterior pituitary
Acromegaly
Hyperprolactinemia
Anterior pituitary insufficiency
Diabetes insipidus and SIAD
Goiter, nodules thyroid tumors
Thyroiditis
Thyrotoxicosis
Hypothyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism
Hypoparatiroidism
Hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia
Osteoporosis
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Hypercortisolism
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Hyperaldosteronism
Adrenal insufficiency
Pheocromocitoma
Polycistic ovary syndrome
Amenorrohea and oligoamenorrohea
Hypogonadism in male
Gonadic tumors


Module: CARDIOLOGIA
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Course table of contents

Chapter 1
Anatomy of the heart and vessels

Chapter 2
Cardiovascular physiology, and bases of hemodynamics
The cardiac cycle
Bases of electrocardiography
Pulmonary gas exchange
Tissue perfusion
Cardio-vascular hemodynamics

Chapter 3
Diagnostic techniques based on physiopathology
Electrocardiogram, stress test and Holter-loop recorder
Chest X-ray and CT scan
Echocardiogram
SPECT
Angiography and heart catheterization

Chapter 4
Ischemic heart disease
Epidemiology and risk factors
Atherosclerosis and chronic coronary artery disease
Acute coronary syndromes
Acute myocardial infarction
Myocardial revascularization techniques

Chapter 5
Syncope and arrhythmias
Syncope
Strokes
Brady and tachy arrhythmias

Chapter 6
Heart failure, heart valve disease and cardiomyopathies
Cardiac dyspnea
Right and left heart failure
Cardiomyopathies
Valve heart disease

Chapter 7
Cardio-active drugs
Anti-ischemic drugs
Anti-hypertensive agents
Anti-arrhythmic drugs
Anti-platelet agents and anti-coagulants
Statins

Module: CARDIOCHIRURGIA
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Pathophysiology of operable cardiopathies and extracorporeal circulation
-Surgery of aortic aneurysms
-Heart valve surgery
-Surgery of ischemic heart disease
-Congenital heart disease
-Heart Transplants and mechanical assist devices


Module: DIDATTICA PRATICA DI NEFROLOGIA, ENDOCRINOLOGIA, CARDIOLOGIA
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Module: NEFROLOGIA
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RENAL PHYSIOLOGY
DIAGNOSTIC ELEMENTS OF NEFROPATIES

NEFROPATIE GLOMERULARI

VASCULAR NEFROPATIES

TUBULOUS-INTERSTITIAL NEFROPATIES

INFECTION OF THE RIBBON AND THE URINARY VIEWS

RENAL CALCULATIONS

MALFORMATIVE AND DISPLAYING NEFROPATIES

ACUTE RENAL INSUFFICIENCY

CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE

THE RENE IN GRAVIDANCE

THE RENE IN THE ANCIENT

















































































































RENAL PHYSIOLOGY
DIAGNOSTIC ELEMENTS OF NEPHROPATIES
- Evaluation of renal function (glomerular filtration, tubular function, renal blood flow)
- Evaluation of Urine Examination
Signs and symptoms of the disorder
- Nephrology syndromes
- Instrumental Investigations (Ultrasound, Radiological Investigations, Radioisotopic Investigations)
- Renal Biopsy
GLOMERURAL DISEASES
- Classification
- Ethiopathogenesis
- Main anatomy-clinical pictures of primitive glomerular nephropathy
- Nephrotic syndrome (causes, pathophysiology, complications)
- Nephritic syndrome (causes, pathophysiology, complications)
- Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (etiopathogenesis, anatomo clinic framework)
- Secondary and hereditary glomerular nephropathy (lupus nephritis, cryogenic nephritis,
Diabetic nephropathy, pregnancy purpura, Alport syndrome)
VASCULAR NEPHROPATIES
- Thrombosis of the renal vein
- Renal failure
- Renal artery stenosis (nephrovascular hypertension): ethiopathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnostics)
- Nephroangiosclerosis
- Vasculitis (classification, ethiopathogenesis, pathology and clinical aspects)
- Thrombotic microangiopathy
TUBULOUS-INTERSTITIAL NEPHROPATIES
- Acute interstitial nephritis (ethiopathogenesis, anatomic-clinical picture)
- Chronic interstitial nephritis (classification, ethiopathogenesis, anatomic-clinical frameworks)
- Reflux nephropathy (ethiopathogenesis, anatomic-clinical picture, diagnostics)
INFECTIONS and KNIDNEY
- Acute pielonephritis (ethiopathogenesis, anatomic-clinical picture)
- Chronic Pielonephritis (ethiopathogenesis, anatomic-clinical picture)
- Renal tuberculosis (ethiopathogenesis, anatomic-clinical picture)
RENAL STONES
- Classification
- Ethiopathogenesis
- Diagnostic and clinical elements
MALFORMATIVE NEPHROPATIES
- Abnormal shape, number and position of the kidney
- Renal dysplasia
- Cystic cystic diseases: simple cysts, dysplastic cysts, polycystic kidney, sponge kidney,
ACUTE RENAL INSUFFICIENCY
- Classification
- Ethiopathogenesis
- Diagnostic and clinical elements
CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE
- Cause
- Physiopathology
- Metabolic changes
- Clinical features and therapy
PREGNANCY and KIDNEY
AGING KIDNEY











Module: CHIRURGIA VASCOLARE
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Vascular Surgery Module
Arterial Disease
1. Abdominal Aorta Aneurysm
2. Carotid artery disease
3. Acute and chronic arterial disease of the lower limbs
4. Surgical aspect of the diabetic foot
Venous Disease
1. DVT prophylaxis in Surgery
2. Post-thrombotic syndrome
3. Leg ulcers
4. Varicose veins

Assessment methods and criteria

Oral

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Dennis L. Kasper, Eugene Braunwald, Anthony Fauci, Stephen Hauser, Dan Longo, J. Larry Jameson Harrison - Principi di Medicina Interna.2 voll. (Edizione 19) McGraw-Hill, Milano 2015
Kasper Gl, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Edition, Mc Graw Hill, 2018
L.H. Cohn Cardiac Surgery in the adult (Edizione 5) Mac Grow Hill 2015 0071844872
ziemer Cardiac Surgery operations on the heart and great vessels in adults and children (Edizione 1) springer 2017 978-3-662-52670-5
Khonsari's Cardiac Surgery safeguards and pitfalls in operative technique (Edizione 5) Wolters Kluwer 2017 9781451183689
Braunwald Heart disease 2018
Lynn Anderson Glen Otto Kathleen Pritchett-Corning Mark Whary Laboratory Animal Medicine 3rd Edition (Edizione 3) Academic Press 2015 9780124095274
Fauci, Braunwald, Kasper, Houser, Longo, Jameson, Loscalzo Harrison Practice. Cardiologia McGraw-Hill Education 2012 8808185494
J-W.Hurst Il cuore Ed. Mc Graw-Hill Libri - Italia  
Kumar –Cotran-Robbins Anatomia Patologica (Edizione 6) EMSI Editrice, Roma. 2015




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