Bachelor's degree in Dental Hygiene (Rovereto)


Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
BIOCHIMICA 2 BIO/10-BIOCHEMISTRY TERP ROV 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Giovanni Gotte
BIOLOGIA APPLICATA 2 BIO/13-EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY Lezioni 1 Semestre CLID ROV Elisabetta Trabetti

Learning outcomes

L’insegnamento si propone di fornire le conoscenze di biologia umana in una visione evoluzionistica con particolare riferimento ai processi molecolari e cellulari comuni a tutti gli organismi viventi, di far conoscere le strutture e le funzioni delle macromolecole biologiche e le principali vie metaboliche nelle quali esse sono coinvolte. Lo studente dovrà essere in grado di spiegare i processi biochimici vitali e i meccanismi cellulari alla base del funzionamento dell’intero organismo e cogliere il significato patogenetico di eventuali alterazioni di essi; dovrà inoltre essere in grado di riconoscere le diverse modalità di trasmissione dei caratteri mendeliani nell’uomo.

MODULO BIOCHIMICA Obiettivi formativi: Il corso si propone di presentare la relazione fra struttura e funzione delle macromolecole biologiche e le principali vie metaboliche nelle quali esse sono coinvolte. Obiettivo fondamentale è stimolare l’interesse dello studente verso le scienze biomolecolari dando massimo risalto alle interconnessioni tra i processi biochimici e le variazioni energetiche ad essi connesse. Al termine dell’insegnamento lo/la studente/studentessa dovranno dimostrare di aver acquisito terminologie e nozioni utili per un’analisi critica dei processi biochimici vitali in modo da conseguire autonomia di valutazione critica e globale dei processi stessi.

MODULO BIOLOGIA APPLICATA Obiettivi formativi: Fornire conoscenze di biologia umana in una visione evoluzionistica con particolare riferimento ai processi molecolari e cellulari comuni a tutti gli organismi viventi. Fornire conoscenze sull’azione mutagena di agenti chimici e fisici. Fornire conoscenze relative alla trasmissione dei caratteri ereditari. Lo studente dovrà essere in grado di spiegare i meccanismi cellulari alla base del funzionamento dell’intero organismo e cogliere il significato patogenetico di eventuali alterazioni di essi; dovrà inoltre essere in grado di riconoscere le diverse modalità di trasmis-sione dei caratteri mendeliani nell’uomo. Al termine dell’insegnamento lo studente dovrà dimostrare di avere acquisito le conoscenze di base dei meccanismi che regolano la vita e la riproduzione cellulare, le interazioni fra cellule, fra organismi e fra organismi e ambiente. Dovrà inoltre dimostrare di avere acquisito conoscenze sui meccanismi di trasmissione dei caratteri ereditari e dovrà saper riconoscere le modalità di trasmissione di malattie genetiche nell’uomo, in particolare quelle riguardanti sviluppo e struttura dei denti. Tali cono-scenze di base rappresentano un pre-requisito per ulteriori approfondimenti specialistici che saranno oggetto degli insegnamenti dei successivi anni di corso.

Syllabus

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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PREPARATORY CHEMISTRY (several notions are included in the basic knowledge required).
1. Atomic structure and periodic properties of the elements: matter composition, atom, atomic particles; atomic theory; quantum numbers, and orbitals; electronic configuration, periodic table and chemical reactivity of the elements; electronic affinity, electronegativity.
2. The chemical bond: molecules and ions; ionic and covalent bond; intermolecular forces; hydrogen bond.
3. Solutions and acid-base reactions: concentration of the solutions, acid-base theories of Arrhenius and Brőnsted-Lowry; hydracids, hydroxides, oxyacids; acid-base reactions; pH and buffer solutions.
4. Organic chemistry notions: carbon atom properties; hybrid orbitals; organic compounds classification: functional groups; hydrocarbons; alcohols, ethers, thiols, amines, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides.
BIOCHEMISTRY
1. Constitutive elements of the living matter: polymeric structure of the biological macromolecules.
2. Protein structure and function: aminoacid classification, buffering power, peptide bond, levels of protein structure; fibrous and globular proteins; hemoglobin and myoglobin: structure, function, factors influencing the oxygen bond; hemoglobin variants; enzymes: classification, role in the chemical reactions, regulation of the enzymatic activity.
3. Vitamins: hydro- and lypo-soluble vitamins; co-enzymes.
4. Bio-energetics: metabolism; chemical transformations in the cell; spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions of the metabolic reactions; ATP as “energy exchange coin”; biologically relevant redox reactions.
5. Carbohydrates structure and metabolism: mono- and disaccharides; polysaccharides; glycoconjugates; glycolysis and its regulation; gluconeogenesis; hints of the penthose phosphate pathway; synthesis of the glycogen.
6. Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondria; acetyl-CoA synthesis; citric acid cycle control; respiratory chain and electron transport; ATP synthesis.
7. Lipids structure and metabolism: structural lipids and biological membranes; cholesterol; stock-reserve lipids; lipids digestion and fatty acid β-oxydation; keton bodies formation; hints of fatty acids biosynthesis.
8. Aminoacid metabolism: hints of gluco- and keto-forming aminoacids; transamination and oxidative deamination; the urea cycle.
Frontal teaching is the exclusive method adopted in this Course.

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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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1. Characteristics of the living beings
2. Chemistry of living organisms and biological molecules
3. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell: organization of the cell; internal membranes and compartmentalization; organelles, characteristics and functions: nucleus, ribosomes, RER, REL, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, cell wall, extracellular matrix. Animal and plant cells. Mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts, amyloplasts, chromoplasts) and endosymbiont theory.
4. Biological membranes: structure and proposed models; passage of materials across cell membranes: passive transport (facilitated diffusion and simple), osmosis, directly and indirectly active transport, co-transport. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Anchoring, tight and gap cell junctions in animal and plant cells.
5. Cell communication: types of cellular communication: endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and iuxtacrine. Sending and receiving the signal.
6. Organization of DNA in chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis. DNA and proteins, nucleosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, chromosome condensation. The cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction
7. DNA and its role in heredity. DNA structure and replication.
8. Gene expression: transcription, genetic code and translation. Gene definition.
9. DNA mutations and mutagenesis
10. Hereditary character transmission and Mendel’s laws; definition of phenotype, genotype, locus, gene, dominant and recessive allele, homozygosity and heterozygosity. Segregation and independent assortment. Independence and association. Crossing-over and recombination. Genetic determination of sex. Gene interactions. Incomplete dominance, condominance, multiple alleles, epistasis and polygeny.
11. The human genome: karyotype analysis and pedigrees; autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, X-linked diseases.

DIDACTIC METHOD
Attendance to lessons is mandatory.
Teaching methods consist of frontal lessons. In addition to the suggested texts, additional didactic supports are offered on the e-learning platform of the course.
Students can make an appointment directly with the teacher every time they need it throughout the academic year, by email.
Students are invited to choose a book among those indicated.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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To pass the Biochemistry module test the students must demonstrate they acquired the comprehension and the knowledge of the program topics. Furthermore, they must show the capability to expose their reasoning in a critical and precise manner and using an appropriate scientific language.
6 examination appeals are foreseen in the whole Academic Year: 2 in the Winter Session after the Course ending, 2 in the Summer Session, and 2 in the Autumn session.
The Biochemistry module exam is a written test based on the topics of the entire course. In particular, it consists of 10 multiple choice questions plus 2 open questions.
The Biochemistry module exam is considered passed if the vote is at least 18/30. It remains valid during the whole Academic Year (i.e., within the autumn session).

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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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To pass the Biology module the students must demonstrate they acquired the comprehension and the knowledge of the program topics. Furthermore, they must show the capability to expose their reasoning in a critical and precise manner and using appropriate scientific language. 6 examination sessions are foreseen in the whole Academic Year: 2 in the Winter Session after the Course ending, 2 in the Summer Session, and 2 in the Autumn session. The Biology module exam is a written test based on the topics of the entire course. In particular, it consists of 13 multiple choice questions, plus 2 open questions. The Biology module exam is considered passed if the vote is at least 18/30. It remains valid during the whole Academic Year (i.e. within the autumn session). Students can retire or refuse the proposed mark.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Solomon, Martin, Martin, Berg Elementi di Biologia (Edizione 7) EdiSES 2017 978-88-7959-938-2
Sadava et al. Elementi di Biologia e genetica Bologna, Zanichelli 2014
David L Nelson, Michael M Cox I principi di biochimica di Lehninger (Edizione 7) Zanichelli 2018 9788808920690
Roberti, Antognelli, Bistocchi, Talesa Biochimica e Biologia per le professioni sanitarie (Edizione 2) McGraw-Hill 2013




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