Bachelor's degree in Speech and Language Therapy (to qualify as a speech and language therapist)

Pathophysiological science (2018/2019)

Course code
4S000169
Credits
4
Coordinator
Carlo Laudanna

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
MEDICINA INTERNA 2 MED/09-INTERNAL MEDICINE LOGO 1^ ANNO - 2^ SEMESTRE Pietro Minuz
PATOLOGIA GENERALE 2 MED/04-EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY LOGO 1^ ANNO - 2^ SEMESTRE Carlo Laudanna

Learning outcomes

Illustrare i concetti fondamentali di eziologia e patogenesi e i legami tra le manifestazioni cliniche delle malattie e i meccanismi alla loro base.

MODULO MEDICINA INTERNA Obiettivi formativi: Il corso si propone di far conoscere i meccanismi fisiopatologici responsabili delle principali alterazioni di sistemi omeostatici dell’organismo, le conseguenze funzionali rilevabili su vari organi e apparati, i meccanismi di compenso attivati in seguito a tali alterazioni.

MODULO PATOLOGIA GENERALE Obiettivi formativi: Il corso svilupperà alcuni argomenti di Patologia Generale propedeutici alla comprensione dei meccanismi di base delle malattie. La Patologia Generale si situa in un punto critico, all’incrocio tra scienza di base e clinica. Il corso si propone quindi di stabilire i legami essenziali tra manifestazioni cliniche e meccanismi fondamentali, facilitando la comprensione delle basi concettuali della malattia.

Syllabus

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MM: MEDICINA INTERNA
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FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE METABOLISM Liquid compartments of the organism. Alterations in fluid or electrolyte balance. Exchanges between compartments. Mechanisms of changes in extracellular fluids (outlines). Alterations in sodium homeostasis. Hypertonia and hypotonia: mechanisms (outllines). Alterations in sodium homeostasis. Hypertonia and hypotonia: mechanisms (outline). Hyposmolarity and hyperosmolarity: causes and manifestations. Role of renal tubule in sodium reabsorption and excretion. Sodium reabsorption and excretion mechanisms in different parts of the tubule. THE ACID-BASE BALANCE Modulation in acid and bicarbonate excretion. Metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. Respiratory acidosis and alkalosis. Hyperkalemia and hypokalemia. Acute renal failure. Chronic renal failure (outlines). THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION. Regulatory mechanisms of the systemic circulation. Cardiac function: relationship between contractility, diameters and efficiency of cardiac function. Heart failure: the compensatory mechanisms. Mechanisms of heart failure progression: activation of sodium and water retention systems. Determinants of arterial pressure. Volume-dependent hypertension: hyperaldosteronism. Reno-vascular hypertension (outlines). ADRENAL SYSTEM Adrenal shock Cushing's syndrome and disease (outlines). Mineralocorticoid hormones excess (hyperaldosteronism). Adrenal insufficiency. DIABETES MELLITUS Insulin-dependent diabetes (outlines). Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Insulin-resistance. BLOOD COAGULATION SYSTEM. Platelet activation in the alterations of vascular endothelial function. The mechanisms of thrombosis. Hemorragic syndromes and syndromes protrombotic syndromes Thrombotic complication of atherosclerotic lesion. Hemodynamic consequences of arterial and venous thrombosis RESPIRATORY FAILURE. Restrictive and obstructive pulmonary disease. Mechanisms of lung injury (outlines). Effects of pulmonary diseases on gas exchange and transport of oxygen to the tissues. LIVER FAILURE Jaundice and mechanisms of hyperbilirubinemia (outline). Hemodynamics in liver cirrhosis. MALABSORPTION SYNDROMES Mechanisms of digestion and absorption of lipids, carbohydrates and vitamins. The main mechanisms of malabsorption (outline). ALTERATIONS OF CALCIUM METABOLISM Hyperparathyroidism (outline). Hypo- and hypervitaminosis D.
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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The program in brief They will be explained: The general concepts of illness, disease and etio-pathology; the cell-based disease; oncology elements; immunity and inflammation Detailed program 1) Generalities a) Introduction to general pathology: fields and discipline purposes b) The disease: definition; causes (determinants, adjuvants, occasional); pathogenesis; course (recurrence, relapse); outcomes (healing, chronic, death); diagnosis (signs and physical examination, symptoms and medical history). 2) Cell pathology a) General concepts: the disease as the expression of cell damage? b) Degenerative changes of the cells: Causes (genetic, nutritional, from chemical, physical, from lack of oxygen, by living agents). reversible cell damage, irreversible cell death. morphological cell changes related to the damage: various aspects of degeneration and necrosis c) Modifications to steady-state cell: stationary phones were molecular changes (hypertrophy, atrophy, atrophy) and their causes cellular changes (hyperplasia, hypoplasia, aplasia) and their causes d) Alterations of cellular differentiation processes: Metaplasia, anaplasia, dysplasia 3) Oncology Definition of neoplastic cells, benign and malignant tumors, Natural history of cancer: advancement, growth, progress, general effects on body. Metastasis 4) Inflammation a) General concepts: utility of the inflammatory process b) Acute inflammation: local and general manifestations of inflammation; causes; pathogenetic mechanisms (vascular component, the white blood cell component and the chemical mediators). The exudate and types of inflammation (erythema, serous, catarrhal, purulent, fibrinous, hemorrhagic, necrotizing). The consequences on 'body (abscess, phlegmon, fistula, adhesion, synechiae, payments). c) Chronic inflammation: Causes; pathogenetic mechanisms; granuloma and granulomatous diseases.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: MEDICINA INTERNA
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The examination: written examination with multiple answers. Suggested textbooks: Pontieri: Patologia e Fisiopatologia Generale, per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (Piccin, Padova) Office hours: on request The teacher Tel: 045-8074414 e-mail: pietro.minuz@univr.it.
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MM: PATOLOGIA GENERALE
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Written examination with questions with multiple answers.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Pontieri GM Patologia e Fisiopatologia Generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (ristampa aggiornata) Edizioni Piccin, Padova 2007
PONTIERI-RUSSO-FRATI PATOLOGIA GENERALE (Edizione 3) PICCIN 2005
Giuseppe Pontieri Elementi di fisiopatologia generale per corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (Edizione 3) Piccin 2012
Pontieri GM Patologia e Fisiopatologia Generale Piccin Editore, Padova 2002




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