Bachelor's degree in Physiotherapy (to qualify as a physiotherapist) (Vicenza)

Pathology (2018/2019)

Course code
4S02742
Credits
4
Coordinator
Claudio Sorio

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FARMACOLOGIA 1 BIO/14-PHARMACOLOGY FISIO VI 2^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Laura Cuzzolin
MICROBIOLOGIA 1 MED/07-MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY FISIO VI 2^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Annarita Mazzariol
PATOLOGIA GENERALE 2 MED/05-CLINICAL PATHOLOGY FISIO VI 2^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Claudio Sorio

Learning outcomes

The Course consists of three modules (Pharmacology, General Pathology, Microbiology) integrated to reach the objective of basic theoretical knowledge required for physiotherapist practice. The learning outcomes are specified inside the different modules.
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MM: PHARMACOLOGY
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The Course is targeted to give to the student basic knowledge and methodological instruments required to understand the role covered by drugs in therapy, how they act to modify health status of the patient, risks related to their use, factors that could modify the answer to a pharmacological treatment.
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MM: GENERAL PATHOLOGY
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At the end of the Course the student is expected to address the following subjects: etiopathogenesis of cell damage, causes of alteration of cell function (chemical, physical and biological), etiopathogenesis of disease. Concept of homeostasis and its regulation. Acute and chronic inflammation. Immune system: cell components, their function and interaction. Homeostasis of the immune response, transfusions and transplants. Molecular and cellular basis of neoplastic transformation.
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MM: MICROBIOLOGY
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Essential knowledge about bacterial and viral infectious diseases, growth and spread of microrganisms, prevention of diffusion. This knowledge is basic for any health worker to save itself and the patients.

Syllabus

TThe Course program consists of the programs of the individual teaching modules.
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MM: PHARMACOLOGY
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GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY. Definition of drug, medicinal product, generic drug, biosimilar, galenic and magistral preparations. Origin of drugs and the process of drug development. Difference between symptomatic, curative, preventive and substitutive drugs. Different actions of drugs: systemic or local, direct or indirect, primary or secondary, collateral, early or late onset. Pharmacokinetics: absorption (mechanisms, routes of administration), distribution (plasma protein binding, tissue vascularization, blood-brain barrier and placental transfer of drugs), metabolism of drugs (biotransformation reactions, enzymatic induction and inhibition), excretion of drugs. Pharmacodynamics: general mechanisms of action, receptor definition, drug-receptor interaction, agonism and antagonism, affinity and intrinsic activity of drugs. Adverse drug reactions. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOTHERAPY. “Placebo” and “Compliance” definitions. Dosage, maximum dose, effective dose, posology, therapeutic index. Therapeutic plasma levels of drugs, peak concentrations, therapeutic range, accumulation, toxic concentrations. Drug interactions. Variability in drug response. SPECIAL PHARMACOLOGY. Non-steroidal and steroidal antiinflammatory drugs: mechanisms of action, pharmacological properties, modality of use, main adverse reactions. Opioids and non opioids analgesics (NSAIDs and paracetamol): mechanisms of action, pharmacological properties, therapeutic uses, tolerability. Antiparkinson drugs.
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MM: GENERAL PATHOLOGY
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Introduction to pathology:
• Cell homeostasis and alterations at the cell and organism levels.
• The concept of biochemical lesion and subcellular localization.
• Alteration of cell homeostasis: adaptation, necrosis, apoptosis, restoration of cell damage.
• Examples of cell adaptation: alterations of cells status and differentiation.
Causes of disease and mechanisms of cell damage:
• General classification of the causes of disease: genetic (example: cystic fibrosis), environmental, multifactorial (example: atherosclerosis), chemical (example: alcohol), radiation, free radicals.
• Mechanisms of healing.
Oedema: pathogenesis and classification.
Introduction to immunology and immunological damage:
• Innate and acquired immunity: description of leukocytes involved and general mechanisms.
• General features: antigen presentation, lymphocyte subclasses, complement.
• MHC ad transplants.
• Blood groups.
• Mechanisms of immuological damage: anafilaxis, complement activation, role of antibodies and Fc receptor, cell-dependent cytotoxicity.
Inflammation:
• Role of blood vessels in inflammation.
• Cells involved in inflammation.
• Classification of inflammatory response based on prevalent features: erithematous, serous, fibrinous, purulent, necrotic-haemorragic.
• Differences among acute and chronic inflammation.
• Cytokines and their role in the regulation of the inflammatory response.
Neoplasia:
• Differences among benign and malign neoplasms.
• Properties of neoplastic cells: growth, invasion and differentiation.
• General classification: epithelial, mesenchimal, neuroectodermal and germinal, hemopoietc cells neoplasms.
• Natural history of neoplasia: precancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ, metastasis. Preferential localization. TNM score.
• Molecular basis of neoplastic transformation: oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Mechanisms of activation/inhibition.
• Cancer etiology: physical, chemical and biological.
• Mechanism of damage: compression, paraneoplastic syndromes, cachexia.
• Cancer biomarkers and their clinical relevance.

Assessment methods and criteria

The exam takes place with multiple choice quiz format. The task includes 45 questions with multiple-choice answers (1-2 correct between 4-5) referred to the programs of all modules: 15 for each of the three modules. The exam is passed when the sufficiency (18 votes) is reached in all modules. In some cases, an oral integration will be possible.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
PONTIERI-RUSSO-FRATI PATOLOGIA GENERALE (Edizione 3) PICCIN 2005
Giovanni M. Pontieri Patologia generale & fisiopatologia generale. Per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (Edizione 3) Piccin 2012 8829921424
Conforti A., Cuzzolin L., Leone R., Moretti U., Pignataro G., Taglialatela M., Vanzetta M. Farmacologia per le professioni sanitarie Idelson-Gnocchi Sorbona 2015 978-88-7947-592-1
Clark M.A., Finkel R., Rey J.A., Whalen K. Le basi della farmacologia Zanichelli 2013 978-88-08-18864-9
Harvey RA, Champe PC, Fisher BD Le basi della microbiologia Zanichelli 2008
Simona De Grazia, D. Ferraro, G. Giammanco Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica per infermieri Pearson 2017
Albi, E., Amberi-Impiombato, F.S., Curcio F., Moncharmont, B., Palese, A. Le basi cellulari e molecolari delle malattie (Edizione 2019) Sorbona Idelson Gnocchi 2018 ISBN 978-88-7947-671-3




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