Bachelor's degree in Obstetrics (to qualify as an obstetrician)

Morphological and functional fundamentals of life (2018/2019)

Course code
4S000039
Credits
7
Coordinator
Raffaella Mariotti

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
ISTOLOGIA ED EMBRIOLOGIA 3 BIO/17-HISTOLOGY 1° ANNO 1° Semestre CLO Raffaella Mariotti
ANATOMIA UMANA 2 BIO/16-HUMAN ANATOMY 1° ANNO 1° Semestre CLO Laura Calderan
FISIOLOGIA UMANA 2 BIO/09-PHYSIOLOGY 1° ANNO 1° Semestre CLO Roberto Poltronieri

Learning outcomes

L’insegnamento si propone di fornire le conoscenze di scienze di base quali istologia, anatomia e fisiologia, pre-requisito per ulteriori approfondimenti specialistici che saranno oggetto degli insegnamenti successivi; l’obiettivo è di fare apprendere agli Studenti l’organizzazione morfologica e strutturale della cellula e dei tessuti, e la conoscenza sullo sviluppo dell’embrione umano. Verranno inoltre trattate l’architettura e la morfologia anatomica di organi, sistemi ed apparati e del significato funzionale della loro organizzazione complessiva nel corpo umano; saranno inoltre fornite le basi per la comprensione dell'organizzazione generale del corpo umano, il funzionamento dei diversi organi e la loro integrazione dinamica in apparati.

Modulo Istologia ed embriologia: Il corso si propone l’obiettivo di far apprendere agli Studenti l’organizzazione morfologica e strutturale della cellula e dei tessuti, e la conoscenza sullo sviluppo dell’embrione umano. Al termine del corso lo Studente dovrà essere in grado di: riconoscere e descrivere dal punto di vista strutturale la cellula, assegnando a ciascuna componente la sua specifica funzione; comprendere il concetto di differenziamento cellulare e correlare le differenze morfologiche e strutturali dei diversi tipi cellulari con le rispettive attività funzionali; riconoscere e descrivere i principali tessuti dell’organismo umano, enfatizzando la comprensione del significato funzionale di ciascun aspetto morfologico osservato; descrivere le principali fasi della gametogenesi, della fecondazione, e delle prime quattro settimane di gestazione dell’embrione.

Modulo Anatomia umana: Il corso è finalizzato all’apprendimento da parte dello Studente dell’architettura e morfologia anatomica di organi, sistemi ed apparati e del significato funzionale della loro organizzazione complessiva nel corpo umano. Una buona conoscenza dell'anatomia topografica e delle caratteristiche morfologiche macroscopiche e microscopiche di ogni apparato.

Modulo Fisiologia umana: Il corso fornisce le basi per la comprensione dell'organizzazione generale del corpo umano. Lo Studente deve conoscere le modalità di funzionamento dei diversi organi, l’integrazione dinamica degli organi in apparati e i meccanismi generali di controllo funzionale in condizioni normali.

Syllabus

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MM: ISTOLOGIA ED EMBRIOLOGIA
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1) Introduction and methods: • Order of magnitude of biological structures object of study in histology • Enlarging of the objects and the resolution of the enlarged images • Optical microscopes and electron microscopes • Development of a histological preparation: fixing, cutting, coloring 2) Cytology: • Structure and function of the plasma membrane (transport, ion channels and receptors) • Structure of the nucleus, the nucleolus and nuclear membrane • Structure and function of the following cytoplasmic organelles: endoplasmic reticulum,Golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes. • Mitosis and meiosis • Notes on cell differentiation 3) Histology • epithelial tissue • cytological features • exocrine glands: classification and their cytological features • endocrine glands: cytological characters • Muscle tissue: • skeletal muscle • heart muscle • smooth muscle • Nervous tissue: • cytological characters of the neuron • myelin sheaths • the neuroglia cells • synapses • Mesenchymal tissues (connective tissues in the broadest sense): • Blood and lymph • Connective tissue: Adipose tissue • cartilage tissues: • hyaline cartilage • elastic cartilage • fibrous cartilage • Bone tissues: • Bone non-lamellar • Bone lamellar • membranous and chondral ossification • Blood Tissue and blood cells • Red blood cells • White blood cells • platelets • plasma • hematopoietic tissue 4. Embryology • oogenesis and spermatogenesis • reproduction •week 1: morulazione, blastocyst and implantation •week 2: formation of the germinal bilaminar disc • Week 3: gastrulation, formation of germinal trilaminar disc
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MM: ANATOMIA UMANA
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Introduction to the study of human anatomy. The general structure of the body and the anatomical terminology: anatomic location; surfaces and planes; movements; parenchymatous viscera; hollow viscera; vascular and nervous bundles. Topographic Anatomy: General Organization of the human body: the body surface; cavity; thorax; abdomen; neck; head, arts. The skeleton and joints: general structure of the skeleton. Types of bones. Classification of joints. The skull : splanchnocranium and neurocranium. Description of individual cranial bones. Spine and ribcage. Basin. Shoulder girdle and upper limb bones. Pelvic girdle and lower limb bones. Muscles: muscle tissue types and their functional differentiation. The muscles of the head and neck; muscles of the trunk;pelvic muscles; limb muscles. Cardiovascular: General information; heart; arteries; microcirculation; veins; pulmonary circulation; systemic circulation; arteries and veins of large circulation; Fetal circulation elements. The blood. Respiratory system: external nose and nasal passages; the larynx; the trachea; bronchi; the lungs; pleurae. Urinary system: kidney; renal pelvis; ureter; bladder; male urethra and prostate; the female urethra. iuxtaglomerula system. Endocrine system: the topography, structure and function of the major endocrine glands. Female reproductive system: ovary; fallopian tubes; uterus; vagina; the external genitalia; placenta. Male reproductive system: General information; testicle; sperm streets; the external genitals.
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MM: FISIOLOGIA UMANA
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CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY 1) Cellular homeostasis 2) Action potential and synaptic transmission 3) Skeletal muscle CARDIOVASCULAR APPARATUS 4) Cardiac autorhythmicity and cardiac impulse propagation 5) Heart nervous control 6) Excitement and cardiac contractility 7) Cardiac reflexes 8) Stroke volume 9) Cardiac output 10) ECG and cardiac cycle 11) Cardiac work and metabolism 12) Hemodynamic principles of the cardiovascular system 13) Vascular resistance 14) Capillaires, veins and lymphatics 15) Blood pressure 16) Cardiovascolar control RESPIRATORY APPARATUS 17) Respiratory mechanism 18) Pulmonary volumes and capacities 19) Ventilation and perfusion 20) Gas diffusion 21) Respiratory gas transport 22) Respiratory control KIDNEY APPARATUS 23) Nephron 24) Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow 25) Reabsorption and secretion renal 26) Urine concentration and dilution 27) Idric and elecrolyte balance 28) Acid-base balance 29) Urination GASTROINTESTINAL APPARATUS 30) Smooth muscle 31) Gastrointestinal physiology 32) Esophageal and gastric motility 33) Intestinal motility 34) Salivary secretion 35) Gastric secretion 36) Pancreatic secretion 37) Liver and gallbladder 38) Secretion and absorption in the intestine NERVOUS SYSTEM 39) Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic control) 40) Adrenergic and cholinergic receptors

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: ISTOLOGIA ED EMBRIOLOGIA
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The exam is written and includes the use of multiple choice questions (5 replies to each question of which only one is correct). The questions are 20 For each correct question it is assigned a point and there are no penalties for wrong answer. Half of correct questions determines sufficiency. In case of doubt in the preparation of the candidate, the teacher can convoke the student and check his preparation orally.
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MM: ANATOMIA UMANA
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The exam includes: A) a written test, with multiple-answer questions (5 replies for each question of which only one is correct). The questions are in the number of 30, broken down by the three teachings of histology, human anatomy and human physiology. In order to pass the test it is necessary to respond correctly to 18 questions out of 30. Each correct question is given a point and there is no penalty in the case of a wrong answer. B. An oral test, to which you have access only if you pass the written."
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MM: FISIOLOGIA UMANA
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"The exam includes: A) a written test, with multiple-answer questions (5 replies for each question of which only one is correct). The questions are in the number of 30, broken down by the three teachings of histology, human anatomy and human physiology. In order to pass the test it is necessary to respond correctly to 18 questions out of 30. Each correct question is given a point and there is no penalty in the case of a wrong answer. B) An oral test, to which you have access only if you pass the written."

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Adamo S, Carinci M, Molinaro P, Siracusa GS, Stefanini M, Ziparo E Istologia di V. Monesi (Edizione 5) Piccin, Padova 2002
Anthony L. Mescher Junqueira Istologia Testo e Atlante, VI Edizione Italiana a cura di Ubaldo Armato, Anna Chiarini, Ilaria Pierpaola Dal Prà, Raffaella Pacchiana. (Edizione 6) PICCIN 2012 978-88299-2166-9
vanputte regan russo Anatomia (Edizione 3) idelson gnocchi 2014 9788879475846
Anastasi et al Anatomia Umana (Edizione 4) Ed. Ermes 2012
KÖPF-MAIER P. Anatomia Umana - Atlante Edi-ermes Milano 2000
Netter Testo-Atlante di Anatomia Umana Normale (Edizione 5) Ed. Edra 2014 8821439127
Poltronieri Roberto Elementi di Fisiologia EdiSES 2018




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