Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Verona)

Morphological and functional fundamentals of life [Matricole dispari] (2018/2019)

Course code
Laura Calderan

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FISIOLOGIA 3 BIO/09-PHYSIOLOGY INF VR - 1° anno 1° sem Roberto Poltronieri
ANATOMIA UMANA 3 BIO/16-HUMAN ANATOMY INF VR - 1° anno 1° sem Laura Calderan
ISTOLOGIA 1 BIO/17-HISTOLOGY INF VR - 1° anno 1° sem Marina Bentivoglio Fales

Learning outcomes

The course introduces the student to the ability of describing the human’s body structure (both considering the macroscopic level and the microscopic level) in normal conditions. Moreover the course develop the knowing of the essential morphologic characteristics of systems, organs, tissues, cells and subcellular structures of the human body and their main related Morpho functional. It also proposes the study of the physiological phenomena of the various systems, in a holistic view from the cell to the whole organism and to recognize the principles of homeostasis and the control mechanisms that oversee them and the major adjustments in non- basal conditions.


CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY 1) Cellular homeostasis 2) Action potential and synaptic transmission 3) Skeletal muscle CARDIOVASCULAR APPARATUS 4) Cardiac autorhythmicity and cardiac impulse propagation 5) Heart nervous control 6) Excitement and cardiac contractility 7) Cardiac reflexes 8) Stroke volume 9) Cardiac output 10) ECG and cardiac cycle 11) Cardiac work and metabolism 12) Hemodynamic principles of the cardiovascular system 13) Vascular resistance 14) Capillaires, veins and lymphatics 15) Blood pressure 16) Cardiovascolar control RESPIRATORY APPARATUS 17) Respiratory mechanism 18) Pulmonary volumes and capacities 19) Ventilation and perfusion 20) Gas diffusion 21) Respiratory gas transport 22) Respiratory control KIDNEY APPARATUS 23) Nephron 24) Glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow 25) Reabsorption and secretion renal 26) Urine concentration and dilution 27) Idric and elecrolyte balance 28) Acid-base balance 29) Urination GASTROINTESTINAL APPARATUS 30) Smooth muscle 31) Gastrointestinal physiology 32) Esophageal and gastric motility 33) Intestinal motility 34) Salivary secretion 35) Gastric secretion 36) Pancreatic secretion 37) Liver and gallbladder 38) Secretion and absorption in the intestine NERVOUS SYSTEM 39) Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic control) 40) Adrenergic and cholinergic receptors
Introduction to the study of human anatomy. General structure of the organism and anatomical terminology: anatomic location; section planes and surfaces; movements; parenchymatous viscera; hollow viscera; Vascular-nervous bundles. Topographic Anatomy: General Organization of the human body: the body surface; cavity; thorax; abdomen; neck; head, arts. Skin: microscopic structure; appendages; mammary gland. Musculoskeletal System: -The skeleton and joints: general structure of the skeleton. Types of bones. The neurocranium and splanchnocranium, general structure: skull. Description of individual cranial bones. Spine and ribcage. Shoulder girdle and upper limb bones. Pelvic girdle and lower limb bones. -Joint Classification and description of the main. -Muscles: muscle tissue, muscular tissue types and their functional differentiation. The muscles of the head and neck; muscles of the trunk; pelvic muscles; limb muscles. Cardiovascular: General information; heart; arteries; veins; microcirculation; pulmonary circulation; systemic circulation; arteries and veins of the great movement; Fetal circulation elements. The blood. The lymphatic system: linph ; lymph nodes; thyme; spleen; lymphatic pathways. Digestive system: General Organization: the oral cavity; tongue and teeth; the pharynx; esophagus; stomach; intestine; pancreas; liver; biliary tract; gallbladder; peritoneum. Respiratory system: external nose and nasal passages; larynx; trachea; bronchi; the lungs; pleure. Urinary system: General information; Rene; renal pelvis; ureter; bladder; male urethra and prostate; the female urethra. Endocrine system: topography, structure and function of the major endocrine glands. Female reproductive system: ovary; fallopian tubes; uterus; vagina; external genitalia. placenta. Male reproductive system: General information; testicle; sperm streets; the external genitals. Central nervous system: General Organization. description of the spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, cerebrum; description of the main sensory and motor systems. Peripheral nervous system: General Organization; cranial nerves; spinal nerves; the vegetative nervous system.
CYTOLOGY - General organization of eukaryotic cells - Notes on methods and tools for the study of cells and tissues (with particular reference to light and electron microscopy). - Structure and functions of the plasma membrane. Permeability. Notes on plasma membrane specializations and their functional role: specializations of the free surface (microvilli, cilia, flagellum); intercellular junctions. - Notes on exocytosis and endocytosis - Cytoplasm and cell organelles: cytosol; cytoskeleton, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum; ribosomes; Golgi apparatus; lysosomes and phagocytosis; mitochondria;. - Nucleus and nuclear envelope (Mitosis and meiosis are dealt with in the Biology course). TISSUES - General features of the main families of tissues - Epithelial tissue: organization, classification criteria. Epithelium. Exocrine and endocrine secretion and glands. - Tissues derived from mesenchymal cells (connective tissues): classification; cell differentiation lines. - Connective tissue: extracellular matrix composition; fibers: collagen fibers, reticular and elastic fibers, collagen synthesis; fibroblasts. Notes on the adipose tissue. - Blood: plasma, red and white cells, platelets. - Cartilage: structure and features; hyaline and elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage. Extracellular matrix and chondrocytes. Chondrogenesis - Bone: structure and features. Compact bone and spongy bone. Osteon, lamellar arrangement. Extracellular matrix; blood supply. Cells: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts. Intramembranous and endochondral osteogenesis. - Muscle: general features, functions. Skeletal muscle: muscle fiber, sarcomere; notes on muscle contraction. Cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle. - Nervous tissue: general features and functions. Neuron and synapsis. Notes on glial cells.

Assessment methods and criteria

The exam is written and includes the use of multiple choice questions (5 replies to each question of which only one is correct). The questions are 100
For each correct question it is assigned a point and there are no penalties for wrong answer.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
vanputte regan russo Anatomia (Edizione 3) idelson gnocchi 2014 9788879475846
Standring Susan Anatomia del Gray (Edizione 41) Ed. EDRA 2012
Anastasi et al Anatomia Umana (Edizione 4) Ed. Ermes 2012
KÖPF-MAIER P. Anatomia Umana - Atlante Edi-ermes Milano 2000
Pasqualino Panattoni Anatomia umana. Citologia, istologia, embriologia, anatomia sistematica Ed. Edra 2009 8802081832
Netter Testo-Atlante di Anatomia Umana Normale (Edizione 5) Ed. Edra 2014 8821439127
Poltronieri Roberto Elementi di Fisiologia EdiSES 2018
Vercelli e Coll Anatomia umana funzionale Minerva Medica 2011
Sica e Coll Istologia per le professioni sanitarie Idelson-Gnocchi 2014

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