Bachelor's degree in Dental Hygiene (Rovereto)


Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
ANATOMIA UMANA 2 BIO/16-HUMAN ANATOMY CLID ROV 1 ANNO 1 SEM Carlo Zancanaro
ISTOLOGIA 2 BIO/17-HISTOLOGY CLID ROV 1 ANNO 1 SEM Raffaella Mariotti
FISIOLOGIA UMANA 2 BIO/09-PHYSIOLOGY not yet allocated not yet allocated

Learning outcomes

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MM: ANATOMIA UMANA
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The student should become able to describe the structural organization of the healthy human body at the macro- and microscopical level as well as the essential morphology of body systems and organs therein together with their most relevant functional correlates.
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MM: ISTOLOGIA
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The aim of the course is to allow the student to Know and understand the structural organization of the cell and human tissues. At the end of the course the student must be able to: 1) Recognize and describe the structural of the cell, assigning to each component its specific function; 2) Describe the concept of cell differentiation and correlate the cell morphology with their functional activity. 3) Recognize and describe the main human body tissues.
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MM: FISIOLOGIA UMANA
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Provide fundamental knowledge about: 1) Functions of organs of the human body on the basis of the physiology of the cells 2) Integration and regulation of the functions of the organs in the apparatus, 3) The relationship between the laws of chemistry and physics and physiology of cells, organs and apparatuses 4) Main physiological parameters of the healthy human.

Syllabus

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MM: ANATOMIA UMANA
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Morphological characteristics with functional correlates of: 1. Cardiovascular and lymphatic apparatuses (heart, coronary vessels, pericardium, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, lymphoid organs) 2. Respiratory apparatus (airways and lung, pleura) 3. Urinary system (kidney, urinary tract). 4. Digestive apparatus (alimentary tract, liver, pancreas, salivary glands).
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MM: ISTOLOGIA
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1) Cytology: • Structure and function of the plasma membrane (transport, ion channels and receptors) • Structure of the nucleus, the nucleolus and nuclear membrane • Structure and function of the following cytoplasmic organelles: endoplasmic reticulum,Golgi complex, mitochondria, ribosomes, lysosomes. • Mitosis and meiosis • Notes on cell differentiation 2) Histology • epithelial tissue • cytological features • exocrine glands: classification and their cytological features • endocrine glands: cytological characters • Muscle tissue: • skeletal muscle • heart muscle • smooth muscle • Nervous tissue: • cytological characters of the neuron • myelin sheaths • the neuroglia cells • synapses • Mesenchymal tissues (connective tissues in the broadest sense): • Blood and lymph • Connective tissue: Adipose tissue • cartilage tissues: • hyaline cartilage • elastic cartilage • fibrous cartilage • Bone tissues: • Bone non-lamellar • Bone lamellar • membranous and chondral ossification • Blood Tissue and blood cells • Red blood cells • White blood cells • platelets • plasma • hematopoietic tissue 3) Tooth tissues: • Tooth Enamel • Dentin • Cement • Pulp • ligament and alveolar bone
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MM: FISIOLOGIA UMANA
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1 Cellular Physiology – Biophysics Levels of organization of living things. Concept of the middle and internal homeostasis. Membrane structure. Movement of molecules across cell membranes. Physiological and molecular mechanisms of cell excitability: membrane potential at rest; graded potential and action potential. 2 Skeletal Muscle Structural and molecular basis of skeletal muscle contraction. The neuromuscular synapse. Coupling between excitation and contraction. Levels of neuromuscular blockade. Mechanics and bioenergetics of muscle contraction. Typing of striated muscle fibers. Motor units. Recruitment and graduation of the force contraction. 3 Nervous System Neuron functional anatomy. Synapse’s structure. Excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Spatial and temporal summation. Modulation of synaptic activity. Facilitation and presynaptic inhibition. General principles of nervous tissue: aggregates and neuronal circuits, receptors and effectors. Functions of sense. The receptor and the transduction process. The potential generator. Units of meaning. Receptive field. Classification of afferent fibers. Encoding of sense information. Somatic sens. Sensitivity 'to pain. Sensitivity 'taste. Smell. Functions of motion. Local control of the movement. Reflections by stretching. Stretch reflex. Coactivation alpha gamma. Recurrent inhibition. Inverse stretch reflex. Flexor reflex. Supraspinal modulation of reflex. Postural tone. Static postural reflexes. Control of postural tone. Voluntary control of movement: descending pathways and cortical areas. 4 Cardiovascular system The blood as liquid assets and tissue. Cardiac function: ionic bases dell'autoritmicità. Coupling between excitation and contraction. Electrocardiogram. Cardiac cycle. Regulation of cardiac output: frequency and stroke volume. Elements of hemodynamics: pressure, flow and resistance. Blood pressure measurement. General information on smooth muscle. Arterioles: local factors and extrinsic factors of flow control. Blood system: diffusion processes and massive flow. Venous circulation. Regulation of blood pressure. 5 Respiratory system Functional anatomy of the respiratory system. Respiratory mechanics. Respiratory volumes. Gas properties. Composition of alveolar air. Respiratory quotient. Exchanges and alveolar tissue of respiratory gases. Ventilation / perfusion ratio. Transport in the blood oxygen and carbon dioxide. Central generation of breath. Control of ventilation by oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions. Hypoxia. 6 Renal system Nephron’s functions: glomerular filtration. Clearance. Renal plasma flow. Tubular reabsorption. Tubular secretion. Adjusting the balance of the hydro saline. Antidiuretic hormone. Concentration and countercurrent multiplication. Regulation of potassium. Renal and extrarenal regulation of serum calcium. Renal regulation of acid-base. 7 Nutrition, metabolism, endocrinology Functional anatomy of the alimentary canal. Secretory and motor phenomena. Salivation. Digestion and absorption. Bioenergetics: basal metabolism and activity. Elements of physiology of the pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, parathyroid, endocrine pancreas and the gonads.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: ANATOMIA UMANA
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Multiple choice questions (n=20). Five answers, one correct. Correct answer, 1 point; wrong/missing answer, 0 points.
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MM: ISTOLOGIA
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The exam is written and includes the use of multiple choice questions (5 replies to each question of which only one is correct). The questions are 20 For each correct question it is assigned a point and there are no penalties for wrong answer. Half of correct questions determines sufficiency. In case of doubt in the preparation of the candidate, the teacher can convoke the student and check his preparation orally
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MM: FISIOLOGIA UMANA
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Written exam, 20 Multiple choice

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Adamo S, Carinci M, Molinaro P, Siracusa GS, Stefanini M, Ziparo E Istologia di V. Monesi (Edizione 5) Piccin, Padova 2002
Anthony L. Mescher Junqueira Istologia Testo e Atlante, VI Edizione Italiana a cura di Ubaldo Armato, Anna Chiarini, Ilaria Pierpaola Dal Prà, Raffaella Pacchiana. (Edizione 6) PICCIN 2012 978-88299-2166-9
Seeley Anatomia e cenni di Anatomia Microscopica Istologia Fisiologia (Edizione 3) Idelson-Gnocchi srl Sorbona, Napoli 2014
Stanfield CL Fisiologia (Edizione 5) EdiSES 2017 9788879599726
Silverthorn Fisiologia umana. Un approccio integrato (Edizione 7) Pearson 2017 8891902179
Widmaier E.P., Raff H., Strang K.T. Vander Fisiologia (Edizione 2) Ambrosiana 2018




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