Bachelor's degree in Physiotherapy (to qualify as a physiotherapist) (Verona)

Propaedeutic physical and biological sciences (2017/2018)

Course code
4S01837
Credits
8
Coordinator
Cristina Bombieri

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
BIOCHIMICA 2 BIO/10-BIOCHEMISTRY FISIO VR 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Giovanni Gotte
FISICA APPLICATA 2 FIS/07-APPLIED PHYSICS FISIO VR 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Pasquina Marzola
STATISTICA MEDICA 2 MED/01-MEDICAL STATISTICS FISIO VR 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Simone Accordini
BIOLOGIA APPLICATA 2 BIO/13-EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY FISIO VR 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Cristina Bombieri

Learning outcomes

The whole course is intended to provide knowledge of basic sciences, as biochemistry, cell biology and genetics, physics and statistics, preparatory for further specific courses, with particular regards to concepts subsequently useful for understanding and deepening biomedical issues related to physiotherapy.
By the end of the course students will have acquired:
- knowledge of cell biology and genetics basic mechanisms which regulate cell activities, reproduction, interactions, through the acquisition of the fundamental concepts of functional and molecular principles of cellular processes common to all living organisms and of the mode of transmission of human genetic diseases;
- basic knowledge of organic chemistry and biochemistry on the structure-function relationships of the most important biological macromolecules, the metabolic regulation at the molecular level, and the energy level changes associated to different biochemical pathways;
- expertise in bio-statistics, with particula regards to basic statistical methods for the analysis of biomedical data such as basic theoretical and practical tools for summarizing sample information, probability calculation, and for generalizing the information collected on a sample to the target population;
- basic knowledge and understanding of fundamental laws of physics and their application in biomedical phenomena and real situations, as well as the ability to solve simple physics problems also relative to real situations, such as joints and equilibrium of bodies.
This fundamental knowledge is a prerequisite for further specializations that will be object of the following year teachings. The course of Propaedeutic physical and biological sciences is preparatory for Human Physiology, Chinesiology and Clinical practice (1st Year) assessments.
More details are available on the specific forms dedicated to the individual modules that constitute the teaching.

Syllabus

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MM: BIOCHEMISTRY
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PREPARATORY CHEMISTRY (several notions are included in the basic knowledge required). 1. Atomic structure and periodic properties of the elements: matter composition, atom, atomic particles; atomic theory; quantum numbers, and orbitals; electronic configuration, periodic table and chemical reactivity of the elements; electronic affinity, electronegativity. 2. The chemical bond: molecules and ions; ionic and covalent bond; intermolecular forces; hydrogen bond. 3. Solutions and acid-base reactions: concentration of the solutions, acid-base theories of Arrhenius and Brőnsted-Lowry; hydracids, hydroxides, oxyacids; acid-base reactions; pH and buffer solutions. 4. Organic chemistry notions: carbon atom properties; hybrid orbitals; organic compounds classification: functional groups; hydrocarbons; alcohols, ethers, thiols, amines, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides. BIOCHEMISTRY 1. Constitutive elements of the living matter: polymeric structure of the biological macromolecules. 2. Protein structure and function: aminoacid classification, buffering power, peptide bond, levels of protein structure; fibrous and globular proteins; hemoglobin and myoglobin: structure, function, factors influencing the oxygen bond; hemoglobin variants; enzymes: classification, role in the chemical reactions, regulation of the enzymatic activity. 3. Vitamins: hydro- and lypo-soluble vitamins; co-enzymes. 4. Bio-energetics: metabolism; chemical transformations in the cell; spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions of the metabolic reactions; ATP as “energy exchange coin”; biologically relevant redox reactions. 5. Carbohydrates structure and metabolism: mono- and disaccharides; polysaccharides; glycoconjugates; glycolysis and its regulation; gluconeogenesis; hints of the penthose phosphate pathway; synthesis of the glycogen. 6. Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondria; acetyl-CoA synthesis; citric acid cycle control; respiratory chain and electron transport; ATP synthesis. 7. Lipids structure and metabolism: structural lipids and biological membranes; cholesterol; stock-reserve lipids; lipids digestion and fatty acid β-oxydation; keton bodies formation; hints of fatty acids biosynthesis. 8. Aminoacid metabolism: hints of gluco- and keto-forming aminoacids; transamination and oxidative deamination; the urea cycle. Frontal teaching is the exclusive method adopted in this Course.
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MM: APPLIED PHYICS
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Introduction Physical quantities, Base physical quantities and derived physical quantities. Standards of length, mass and time. MKS and cgs systems of units. Cartesian frame of reference. Vector and scalar quantities. Components and magnitude of a vector. Addition and subtraction of vectors. Unit vectors. The scalar and vector products of vectors. Mechanics Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration. Average and instantaneous velocity. Particle under constant velocity. Average and instantaneous acceleration. Particle under constant acceleration. Forces . The principles of dynamics . Law of universal gravity. Weight. Friction force. Circular uniform motion. Rigid body, body center of mass and center of gravity. Moment of force. Equilibrium of a rigid boby. Definition of Work and Energy. Kinetic energy. Work-kinetic energy theorem. Conservative forces. Potential energy. Law of conservation of mechanical energy. Power. Fluids Definition of Fluid. Density. Pressure. Archimede’s principle. Variation of pressure with depth (Stevin’s Law). Pascal’s Law. Measurement of atmospheric pressure or Torricelli’s experiment. Pressure Units: atm, mmHg, Pa. Pressure measurements. Archimede’s principle. Fluid dynamics. Bernoulli’s equationU-tube manometers. Flow. Measurement of arterial blood pressure. Perfect fluid. Continuity equation for flow and its application to blood circulation. Bernoulli’s theorem and its application to stenosis and aneurysm. Real fluid and viscosity. Blood viscosity. Poiseuille’s Law. Physiological effects of hydrostatic pressure. Thermal phenomena and gases Temperatue, heat. Thermal expansion. Mercury thermometer. Celsius, Kelvin anf Farheneit Scale. Thermal capacity, specific heat. Mechanical equivalent of heat. Gas laws: First and second Gay-Lussac laws. The absolute temperature (Kelvin Scale). Boyle’s law. Avogadro’s law. Ideal gas law. Thermodynamic systems and process. First and second law of thermodynamics. Heat transport by conduction, convection and radiation. Electrical phenomena Electric charge. Coloumb’s law. Electic field, potential energy and electric potential. Electric current. Ohm’s law. Resistance and resistivity. Conductors and insulators. The electronvolt. Electromagnetism (hints). Waves Mechanical and electromagnetic waves; transverse and longitudinal waves. Period, frequency, wavelength and propagation speed. Amplitude, energy, intensity of wave, Mechanical waves: the sound. Electromagnetic waves, the speed of light, spectrum of electromagnetic waves; the photon energy.
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MM: MEDICAL STATISTICS
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The course is structured in theoretical frontal lessons (20h). 1) Medicine, scientific research and statistics 2) The measurement process in medicine: measurement scales, validity, precision and accuracy 3) Statistical variables and frequency distributions 4) How to summarize the distribution of one or more variables: measures of location and dispersion, contingency tables 5) An introduction to probability theory: definitions, basic rules of probability, independent and conditional probability, random variables, Gaussian distribution 6) How to assess the validity of a diagnostic tool: sensitivity and specificity, ROC curves 7) An introduction to statistical inference: an outline of sampling theory, the sampling distribution of an estimator, confidence interval, the elements of a statistical test (null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis, type I and type II errors, power of a statistical test, p-value), z test and t-test
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MM: APPLIED BIOLOGY
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- Characteristics of the living beings. Organization levels of living organisms. Symbiosis. Autotrophy and heterotrophy.
- Water: characteristics and biological importance.
- Structure, function, replication of the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell. Role of the cell compartmentalisation.
- Biological membrane: structure, properties and function. Passage of materials across cell membranes. Cell junctions.
- Cell communication.
- Cell cycle and its regulation, mitosis, meiosis, cell death. Sexual and asexual reproduction.
- The human genome. Organisation of DNA in chromosome. Chromatin structure and composition.
- DNA: structure, function, replication. DNA and its role in heredity. Definition of gene. Informational pathway: transcription, RNA maturation, genetic code, translation and protein synthesis.
- DNA mutation and repair.
- Chromosomal bases of inheritance: Normal and pathological human karyotype.
- Hereditary character transmission and Mendel’s laws. Mode of genetic information transmission: autosomal and sex-linked heredity. Introduction to transmission of complex characters.
- Hereditary and genetic diseases. Examples. Somatic mutations and cancer.

Assessment methods and criteria

The exam consists of 4 written tests, one for each module, based on all the issues covered throughout the course. Tests can be passed separately as long as they are within the same academic year.
For each academic year, 6 periods are available to take the exams: 2 in the Winter Session at the end of the course, 2 in the Summer Session and 2 in the Autumn Session.
Students who have been admitted to the undergraduate degree with a score lower than 6 points in Biology, 3 points in Chemistry and / or 3 points in Physics and Mathematics, must have first discharged their training debts, before taking the exam.
To pass the exam, students must get a score of not less than 18/30 in each test. The final mark (/out of 30) willl derive from the weighted average over credits of each single test score. Students can retire or refuse the proposed score: in such case, any partial credit will be canceled and the students shall enroll again for the whole examination (all the 4 tests).
See the forms of each single module for more details.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Catani et all Appunti di biochimica (Edizione 2) piccin 2017 978-88-299-2843-9
Solomon, Martin, Martin, Berg Elementi di Biologia (Edizione 7) EdiSES 2017 978-88-7959-938-2
A. Fiecchi, M. Galli Kienle, A. Scala Chimica e propedeutica biochimica Edi-Ermes  
Monaco V., Sacchi R., Solano A. Elementi di Fisica McGrawHill 2007 978-88-386-1698-3
D. Scannicchio, E. Giroletti Elementi di Fisica Biomedica EdiSES 2015
Verlato G, Zanolin ME Esercizi di Statistica Medica, Informatica ed Epidemiologia Libreria Cortina Editrice, Verona 2000
Swinscow TDV, Campbell MJ Le Basi della Statistica per Scienze Bio-mediche Edizioni Minerva Medica 2004
Triola MM, Triola MF Statistica per le Discipline Biosanitarie Pearson 2009
Roberti, Antognelli, Bistocchi, Talesa Biochimica e Biologia per le professioni sanitarie (Edizione 2) McGraw-Hill 2013
Sadava, Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker Elementi di Biologia e Genetica (Edizione 5) Zanichelli 2019 9788808820655




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