Bachelor's degree in Obstetrics (to qualify as an obstetrician)

General pathophysiology and therapeutic treatments (2017/2018)

Course code
4S000069
Credits
5
Coordinator
Angelo Pietrobelli

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FISIOPATOLOGIA GENERALE 1 MED/09-INTERNAL MEDICINE 2°anno 1°semestre CLO Cristiano Fava
SCIENZE DIETETICHE 1 MED/49-FOOD AND DIETETIC SCIENCES 2°anno 1°semestre CLO Angelo Pietrobelli
FARMACOLOGIA CLINICA 1 BIO/14-PHARMACOLOGY 2°anno 1°semestre CLO Guido Francesco Fumagalli
MENOPAUSA E CLIMATERIO 1 MED/40-OBSTETRICS AND GYNAECOLOGY 2°anno 1°semestre CLO Massimo Piergiuseppe Franchi
PATOLOGIA CLINICA 1 MED/05-CLINICAL PATHOLOGY 2°anno 1°semestre CLO Martina Montagnana

Learning outcomes

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MM: FISIOPATOLOGIA GENERALE
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To know the regulation of body water and electrolytes and of the hydro-electrolytes balance (homeostasis) by the kidney, heart failure, thromboembolism, chronic hypertension and pre-eclampsia.
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MM: SCIENZE DIETETICHE
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- A valuable knowledge on Nutrition in all students - Nutritional knowledge useful for day by day clinic work. - Basic knowledge of nutritional value of different food related to different diseases.
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MM: FARMACOLOGIA CLINICA
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General aims At the end of the course the student will: Know the classes of drugs that are most commonly used in obstetrical settings For each class, know the mechanisms of action, the therapeutic effects, the adverse and toxic effecst Learn the rationale of drug therapies in the clinical context of pregnancy, labor and related diseases. Specific aims Understanding and knowledge of the mechanisms of action, tehrapeutic and adverse effect, condition for use of the following classes of drugs: Contraceptive drugs Antibiotics, antimicotic and antiviral drugs NSAID and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other approaches to the therapies of respiratory disordres Drugs for the control of pain Drugs acting on sympathetic system
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MM: MENOPAUSA E CLIMATERIO
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The course aims to promote knowledge that menopausal transition is associated with underlying hormonal changes that can contribute to a range of physical and emotional symptoms. The menopausal transition is a time when women feel vulnerable and the course focuses on the importance to provide personal and tailored healthcare by midwives according to individual needs to ensure effective support. Knowledge of improvements in medical treatment and focus on evidence based preventive health care.
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MM: PATOLOGIA CLINICA
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Aim of the course is to provide tools and knowledge for a correct interpretation of the biochemical tests performed in physiological and pathological pregnancy.

Syllabus

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MM: FISIOPATOLOGIA GENERALE
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1. Electrolyte equilibrium in the body: maintenance of volume and distribution of fluids and their possible alterations: hyperhydration and dehydration syndromes, balance between intra- and –extra-cellular fluids (isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic), Signs and symptoms of fluid and electrolyte deregulation. 2. Urinary System: the kidney as a filter. Pathophysiology of acute renal failure. 3. Venous Thromboembolism: pathophysiology of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Virchow’s triad and risk factors for deep vein thrombosis. Therapy notes. 4. Cardiovascular system: control of vascular tone and blood pressure, high blood pressure (hints about pathophysiological hypotheses with references to endocrine pathophysiology), ischemic heart disease, heart failure, left and right sided heart failure, cardiovascular shock. Signs and symptoms of heart/circulatory diseases. 5. Pre-eclampsia: pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia. Hypertensive disturbances during pregnancy. Therapy notes
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MM: SCIENZE DIETETICHE
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- Nutrients - Neonate Nutrition. - Breast feeding – Bottle feeding – wainin. Nutritional elements in the first year of age. - Adult Nutrition - Nutrition in Elderly – Correct Nutritional Apport – Supplementation. Carenze - Supplementazioni - Food Nutritional evaluation - Different diets - Nutrition and sport - Specific Nutritional support. Nutrition and cardio-vascular diseases. - Micronutrients - Clinical complication related to bad nutritional habits.
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MM: FARMACOLOGIA CLINICA
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Contraceptive drugs: evolution of contraceptive pharmacological strategies; classes of compounds and their mechanisms of action; clinical and toxicological difference among contraceptive drugs and formulations Classification, mechanisms of action and acquired resistance and toxicology of antibiotics, antimicotic and antiviral drugs. Clinical indications and choice criteria NSAIDs and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: pharmacological targets and mechanisms of action; clinical effects, adverse reaction and choice criteria. Bronchodilators and (combinations of) drugs for control of respiratory disorders including cromoglicates and mucolytics Drugs acting on cathecolaminergic receptors and neurotransmitters, including beta agonists/antagonists and selective PDE inhibitors: mechanisms of action, clinical use and adverse reactions. Pharmacological control of pain: local anesthetics, opioids. mechanisms of action, clinical use and toxicology.
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MM: MENOPAUSA E CLIMATERIO
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Analysis and discussion of the progressive endocrinologic continuum that takes reproductive-aged women from regular and predictable menses to a final menstrual period associated to ovarian senescence. Hypotalamus-pituitary-ovarian axis changes and diagnosis, patient clinical and instrumental evaluation and laboratory testing. Endometrial changes, central thermoregulation changes, bone metabolism/structural changes and relationship with osteopenia and osteoporosis, cardiovascular and lower genital tract changes. Hormonal replacement therapy: history, controversies and oncologic risk. Discussion in detail of psychological aspects, libido and quality of life both during menopausal transition and in the years of life in the postmenopausal state.
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MM: PATOLOGIA CLINICA
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Lesson 1. - Pre-analytical phase: appropriateness of the requests and blood collection procedures - Laboratory tests in pregnancy - Gestational diabetes mellitus Lesson 2. - Primary and secondary hemostasis - Thrombophilia and venous thromboembolism - Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) Lesson 3. - Renal function tests Lesson 4. - Anemia in pregnancy

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: FISIOPATOLOGIA GENERALE
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Written exam (multiple choice test) + evantrually oral exam
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MM: SCIENZE DIETETICHE
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Written test with quiz with pre-order answers.
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MM: FARMACOLOGIA CLINICA
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Written test w multiple choice questions
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MM: MENOPAUSA E CLIMATERIO
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1.Written and oral test about symptoms, diagnosis, therapy and treatment in menopausal transition and postmenopausal state.
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MM: PATOLOGIA CLINICA
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Written test. The contents of the written test will be represented by topics of the teaching program.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
A. Brugnolli, L. Saiani Trattato di Medicina e Infermieristica "Un approccio di cure Integrate" (Edizione 1) SORBONA 2017 9788879476379
Giuseppe Pontieri Elementi di fisiopatologia generale per corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie (Edizione 3) Piccin 2012
A. Conforti, L. Cuzzolin, R. Leone, U. Moretti, G. Pignataro, M. Taglialatela, M. Vanzetta Farmacologia per le professioni sanitarie (Edizione 1) Idelson-Gnocchi 2015 978-88-7947-592-1
Bolis G Manuale di Ginecologia e Ostetricia (Edizione 2) EdiSES 2017 9788879599269 G Bolis Manuale di Ginecologia e Ostetricia EdiSES IIa edizione 2017 ISBN 9788879599269 Ch.10: Menopausa e Post menopausa
Ciaccio M, Lippi G Biochimica Clinica e Medicina di Laboratorio (Edizione 2017) EdiSES Edizioni Scientifiche ed Universitarie 2017 9788879599580




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