Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Verona)

Morphological and functional fundamentals of life [Matricole pari] (2017/2018)

Course code
4S000039
Credits
7
Coordinator
Paolo Fabene

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
FISIOLOGIA 3 BIO/09-PHYSIOLOGY INF VR - 1° anno 1° sem Chiara Della Libera
ANATOMIA UMANA 3 BIO/16-HUMAN ANATOMY INF VR - 1° anno 1° sem Paolo Fabene
ISTOLOGIA 1 BIO/17-HISTOLOGY INF VR - 1° anno 1° sem Marina Bentivoglio Fales

Learning outcomes

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MM: FISIOLOGIA
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Students will acquire the fundamental notions about the life functions of healthy human beings, in order to understand the working of their organs and systems, of their regulation mechanisms and the main processes of integration and homeostatic control.
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MM: ANATOMIA UMANA
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The course introduces the student to the ability of describing the human’s body structure from the macroscopic level to the microscopic level in health conditions and to know the essential morphologic characteristics of systems, organs, tissues, cells and subcellular structures of the human body and their main related Morphofunctional. It also proposes the study of the physiological phenomena of the various systems, in a holistic view , from the cell to the whole organism and to recognize the principles of homeostasis and the control mechanisms that oversee them and the major adjustments in non- basal conditions.
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MM: ISTOLOGIA
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The objectives of the course are • to provide to the students essential knowledge on the structure and function of the cell as well as of tissues which compose the organs of the human body • familiarize the students with themes concerning cells and tissues as basis for subsequent courses of the normal and pathological structure and functions of the human body

Syllabus

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MM: FISIOLOGIA
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BASIC PHYSIOLOGY Principles of cell functions. Homeostasis of body fluids. Signal transduction - membrane receptors, second messengers and regulation of gene expression. INTERCELLULAR COMMUNICATION Membrane potential. Graduate potentials. Action potential. Classification of neural fibers. Electrical and chemical synapses. Neurotransmitters and hormones. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY Sensory systems - Receptors and signal transduction. Receptors and afferent fibers for the processing of visual, auditory, tactile, proprioceptive, thermal and noxious stimuli. Central processing of sensory inputs. Pain. Motor systems - Neuromuscular junction. Spinal reflexes. Autonomous nervous system - Functional organization. MUSCLE PHYSIOLOGY Skeletal muscle- Functional organization. Structural and functional bases of muscle contraction. Classification of muscle fibers. Motor units. Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Circulation. Elements of cardiac function. Regulation of heart and vasculature. Integrated control of the cardiovascular system. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure and function of the respiratory system. Static and dynamic mechanical properties of the lung and chest wall. Ventilation, perfusion and their relationships. Oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Control of respiration. Non-respiratory functions of the lung. GASTROINTESTINAL PHYSIOLOGY The gastrointestinal tract. Integrated responses to a meal: Cephalic, oral, esophageal, gastric and small intestinal and colonic phases. Transport and metabolic functions of the liver. RENAL SYSTEM Solute and water transport along the nephron: tubular function. Control of body fluid osmolality and volume. Potassium, calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Role of the kidneys in the regulation of acid-base balance. ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS Hormonal regulation of energy metabolism. Hormonal regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism. Hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Thyroid glands. Adrenal glands. Male and female reproductive systems.
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MM: ANATOMIA UMANA
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General anatomy: anatomical terminology: terms of position and movement. Main reference surface lines. Overview of topographical anatomy. Overview of surface anatomy. General organization of hollow and full organs. Integumentary system: skin and skin appendages, skin receptors, mammary gland. Locomotor system Osteology: Generalities on bones. Axis skeleton and appendicular skeleton: neurocranium and splanchnocranium, rachis, rib cage, scapular and pelvic girdle and upper and lower limbs. Arthrology: classification and structure of the joints: sinartrosis and diarthrosis. Ossification processes. Myology: generalities and main muscles of the body. Nervous system: central and peripheral nervous system. White and gray substance. The nerve, the motor and sensory unit, the sensitivity. Meninges, sickles, venous sinuses and sinuses. CNS cavities, chorioid plexi, cerebrospinal fluid, arachnoidal granulations. Spinal cord, myelencephalon, metencephalon, midbrain, diencephalon and telencephalon. Cortical areas, motor and sensory homunculus. Ascending pathways (via spino-thalamic, spino-bulb-thalamic and spino-cerebellar) and descending (direct and indirect cortical-spinal) of the spinal cord. Orthosympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Cranial and spinal nerves. Vascularization of the brain. Cardiovascular system: small and large circulation. Pericardium, heart, heart valves, vascularization, innervation. Structure of arteries, veins, capillaries. Main arterial and venous branches of the great circulation. Hepatic portal system. Fetal circulation. Blood and lymphatic system: lymph and lymphatic vessels, tonsils, thymus, lymph nodes, spleen. Digestive system: mouth, teeth, tongue, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, peritoneum and months, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum. Liver, gall bladder, pancreas. Respiratory system: upper and lower airways, nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, respiratory mucosa and olfactory. Larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungs, pulmonary alveoli and. Uropoietic apparatus: kidney, vascularization. The nephron and the iuxtaglomerulare apparatus. Urinary tract (renal goblets, pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra). Endocrine system: endocrine glands, localization and hormones produced. Epiphysis, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, endocrine pancreas, adrenal glands. Male genital apparatus: scrotum, testis, epididymis, deferent, spermatic cord, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, prostate, bulb-urethral glands, penis. Female genital apparatus: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genitalia.
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MM: ISTOLOGIA
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CYTOLOGY - General organization of eukaryotic cells - Notes on methods and tools for the study of cells and tissues (with particular reference to light and electron microscopy). - Structure and functions of the plasma membrane. Permeability. Notes on plasma membrane specializations and their functional role: specializations of the free surface (microvilli, cilia, flagellum); intercellular junctions. - Notes on exocytosis and endocytosis - Cytoplasm and cell organelles: cytosol; cytoskeleton, rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum; ribosomes; Golgi apparatus; lysosomes and phagocytosis; mitochondria;. - Nucleus and nuclear envelope (Mitosis and meiosis are dealt with in the Biology course.) TISSUES - General features of the main families of tissues - Epithelial tissue: organization, classification criteria. Epithelium. Exocrine and endocrine secretion and glands. - Tissues derived from mesenchymal cells (connective tissues): classification; cell differentiation lines. - Connective tissue: extracellular matrix composition; fibers: collagen fibers, reticular and elastic fibers, collagen synthesis; fibroblasts. Notes on the adipose tissue. - Blood: plasma, red and white cells, platelets. - Cartilage: structure and features; hyaline and elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage. Extracellular matrix and chondrocytes. Chondrogenesis - Bone: structure and features. Compact bone and spongy bone. Osteon, lamellar arrangement. Extracellular matrix; blood supply. Cells: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts. Intramembranous and endochondral osteogenesis. - Muscle: general features, functions. Skeletal muscle: muscle fiber, sarcomere; notes on muscle contraction. Cardiac muscle. Smooth muscle. - Nervous tissue: general features and functions. Neuron and synapsis. Notes on glial cells.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: FISIOLOGIA
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Written exam, with multiple choice questions.
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MM: ANATOMIA UMANA
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Writing Test
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MM: ISTOLOGIA
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Written examination, with multiple choice test, with the tests of the integrated course





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