Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Verona)

Pathophysiology applied at Nursing [Matricole dispari] - FARMACOLOGIA GENERALE

Course code
Name of lecturer
Roberto Leone
Number of ECTS credits allocated
Academic sector
Language of instruction
INF VR - 1° anno 2° sem dal Feb 1, 2017 al Mar 31, 2017.

To show the organization of the course that includes this module, follow this link * Course organization

Lesson timetable

INF VR - 1° anno 2° sem

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Learning outcomes

Aim of the unit of General Pharmacology within the course of "Application Physiopathology at Nursing" is to give basics related to mechanism and use of drugs, with reference to pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, pharmacoepidemiology and pharmacovigilance. Basic concepts in pharmacology are preparatory for the nurse’s role in the management and surveillance of pharmacological therapies an in patient’s education in the use of drugs. The general pharmacology module is preparatory to the study of each class of drugs, which starts from the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs in this module and will be completed in clinical pharmacology module.


Basic principles in Pharmacology and introduction to the drugs in the market
Definition of drug, active substance, pharmaceutical product, vehicle, eccipient, the placebo effect
Evaluation of the drugs’ efficacy: the randomized clinical trial
Different sources of drugs. How the drugs enter in the market
Bioequivalent and biosimilar drugs
The italian market for drugs. The rembursment of drug by National Health Service. OTC and SOP drugs, different type of prescriptions. Package insert: therapeutic indications, dosages, warming and contraindications. The off-label use
International clasification of drugs: Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System. How to measure the drug use: the Defined Daily Dose (DDD)
Drugs clssification on the basis of therapeutic usages. Basic principles of the mechanism of action of drugs: drug’s receptor, drug-receptor interaction: agonism and antagonism. Pharmacological, physiological and chemestry antagonisms
Drug’s absorption. Main characteristics of different drug administration routes: advantages and disadvantages. The bioavailability of drugs. Food-drugs interactions
The drugs’ distribution in the body. Carriers and efflux pumps. Factors that can influence the drugs’ distribution: the blood-brain and placentar barriers
Characteristics of drug metabolism. Enzyme induction and inhibition
Drug’s clearance. Factors that may alter influence drug’s clearance
Definition and meaning of dose, maximum dose, daily dose, dosing, therapeutic index, clearance, half-life, peak blood levels, therapeutic range, toxic concentrations, accumulation
Relationship between plasma concentrations of drugs and their action
Factors to be taken into account in determining the dose of a drug, and in the case of repeated administrations, the dosing interval.
How to calculate pharmaceutical doses.
Basics of risk/benefit and cost/benefit analyses for drugs. Adverse drug reactions: mechanisms and risk factors. The spontaneous reporting system of adverse drug reactions: regulation and role for nurses

Antibacterial drugs: general issues and characteristics of the main classes of antibacterial drugs. Basics of antivirals and vaccines. Brief remarks on anti-cancer drugs.
Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs): epidemiology, pharmacological mechanisms, main therapeutic uses, adverse reactions

Text book
Conforti, Cuzzolin, Leone, Moretti, Pignataro, Taglialatela, Vanzetta. Farmacologia per le professioni sanitarie, Sorbona Editore 2015

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Conforti A., Cuzzolin L., Leone R., Moretti U., Pignataro G., Taglialatela M., Vanzetta M. Farmacologia per le professioni sanitarie Idelson-Gnocchi Sorbona 2015 978-88-7947-592-1

Assessment methods and criteria

Learning evaluation of General Pharmacology is made in the examination of the "Physiopathology applied to nursing" processes that takes place in writing mode. The task includes 65 questions with multiple-choice answers (1 correct between 4-5 ): 15 for the module of General Pharmacology, 15 for Semeiotics and Physiopathology , 15 for General Pathology, 2o for Clinical Nursing. The exam is passed when you reach the overall sufficiency (18 votes) and if at all modules reaches a certain level of scoring (11 Clinical Nursing, 8 for the other three modules).


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