Bachelor's degree in Cardiocirculatory Physiopathology and Cardiovascular Perfusion Techniques (national qualification)

Biological and biochemical sciences (2016/2017)

Course code
4S000166
Credits
4
Coordinator
Elisabetta Trabetti

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
BIOCHIMICA 2 BIO/10-BIOCHEMISTRY PERFUSIONISTI LEZ 1A 1S Giovanni Gotte
BIOLOGIA APPLICATA 2 BIO/13-EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY PERFUSIONISTI LEZ 1A 1S Elisabetta Trabetti

Learning outcomes

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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Basic knowledge of general and organic chemistry preparatory for biochemistry. Structure-function relationship of the most important biological macromolecules and of the metabolic regulation at the molecular level. Cross-talk between the different biochemical pathways and the energy level changes associated.
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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The course purposes are: • To give basic knowledge about living organism characteristic: procariots, eucariots, viruses, through the acquisition of the fundamental concepts of biology and of the structural, functional and molecular principles of cellular processes. • To provide the basic knowledge on the fundamental concepts of genetics and transmission of hereditary characters.

Syllabus

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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PREPARATORY CHEMISTRY (several notions are included in the basic knowledge required)
1. Atomic structure and periodic properties of the elements: matter composition, atom, atomic particles; atomic theory; quantum numbers, and orbitals; electronic configuration, periodic table and chemical reactivity of the elements; electronic affinity, electronegativity.
2. The chemical bond: molecules and ions; ionic and covalent bond; intermolecular forces; hydrogen bond.
3. Solutions and acid-base reactions: concentration of the solutions, acid-base theories of Arrhenius and Brőnsted-Lowry; hydracids, hydroxides, oxyacids; acid-base reactions; pH and buffer solutions.
4. Organic chemistry notions: carbon atom properties; hybrid orbitals; organic compounds classification: functional groups; hydrocarbons; alcohols, ethers, thiols, amines, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides.

BIOCHEMISTRY
1. Constitutive elements of the living matter: polymeric structure of the biological macromolecules.
2. Protein structure and function: aminoacid classification, buffering power, peptide bond, levels of protein structure; fibrous and globular proteins; hemoglobin and myoglobin: structure, function, factors influencing the oxygen bond; hemoglobin variants; enzymes: classification, role in the chemical reactions, regulation of the enzymatic activity.
3. Vitamins: hydro- and lypo-soluble vitamins; co-enzymes.
4. Bio-energetics: metabolism; chemical transformations in the cell; spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions of the metabolic reactions; ATP as “energy exchange coin”; biologically relevant redox reactions.
5. Carbohydrates structure and metabolism: mono- and disaccharides; polysaccharides; glycoconjugates; glycolysis and its regulation; gluconeogenesis; hints of the penthose phosphate pathway; synthesis of the glycogen.
6. Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondria; acetyl-CoA synthesis; citric acid cycle control; respiratory chain and electron transport; ATP synthesis.
7. Lipids structure and metabolism: structural lipids and biological membranes; cholesterol; stock-reserve lipids; lipids digestion and fatty acid β-oxydation; keton bodies formation; hints of fatty acids biosynthesis.
8. Aminoacid metabolism: hints of gluco- and keto-forming aminoacids; transamination and oxidative deamination; the urea cycle.
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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•Characteristics of the living beings
•Chemistry of living organisms and biological molecules
•Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell: organization of the cell; internal membranes and compartmentalization; organelles, characteristics and functions: nucleus, ribosomes, RER, REL, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, cell wall, extracellular matrix. Animal and plant cells. Mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts, amyloplasts, chromoplasts) and endosymbiont theory.
•Biological membranes: structure and proposed models; passage of materials across cell membranes: passive transport (facilitated diffusion and simple), osmosis, directly and indirectly active transport, co-transport. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Anchoring, tight and gap cell junctions in animal and plant cells.
•Cell communication: types of cellular communication: endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and iuxtacrine. Sending and receiving the signal.
•Organization of DNA in chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis. DNA and proteins, nucleosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, chromosome condensation. The cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction
•DNA and its role in heredity. DNA structure and replication.
•Gene expression: transcription, genetic code and translation. Gene definition.
•DNA mutations and mutagenesis
•Hereditary character transmission and Mendel’s laws; definition of phenotype, genotype, locus, gene, dominant and recessive allele, homozygosity and heterozygosity. Segregation and independent assortment. Independence and association. Crossing-over and recombination. Genetic determination of sex. Gene interactions. Incomplete dominance, condominance, multiple alleles, epistasis and polygeny.
•The human genome: karyotype analysis and pedigrees; autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, X-linked diseases.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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Written test: 10 multiple choice questions (2 points each), plus 2 open questions (0 to 5 points each).
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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA
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Written test: multiple choice questions and open-ended questions.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Raven- Johnson - Mason - Losos – Singer BIOLOGIA CELLULARE 2012
Raven-Johnson - Mason - Losos GENETICA E BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE 2012
A. Fiecchi, M. Galli Kienle, A. Scala Chimica e propedeutica biochimica Edi-Ermes  
Luciano BINAGLIA, Bruno GIARDINA CHIMICA e PROPEDEUTICA BIOCHIMICA (con CD-ROM) Ediz. Mc Graw-Hill  




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