Bachelor's degree in Psychiatric Rehabilitation Techniques (to qualify as a psychiatric rehabilitation expert)(Rovereto)

Biomolecular fondamentals of life (2016/2017)


Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
BIOLOGIA APPLICATA E GENETICA 2 BIO/13-EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY CLID LEZ 1A 1S Elisabetta Trabetti
BIOCHIMICA 2 BIO/10-BIOCHEMISTRY TERP ROV 1^ ANNO - 1^ SEMESTRE Giovanni Gotte

Learning outcomes

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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA E GENETICA
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The course purposes are: • To give basic knowledge about living organism characteristic: procariots, eucariots, viruses, through the acquisition of the fundamental concepts of biology and of the structural, functional and molecular principles of cellular processes. • To provide the basic knowledge on the fundamental concepts of genetics and transmission of hereditary characters.
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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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Basic knowledge of general and organic chemistry preparatory for biochemistry. Structure-function relationship of the most important biological macromolecules and of the metabolic regulation at the molecular level. Cross-talk between the different biochemical pathways and the energy level changes associated.

Syllabus

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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA E GENETICA
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• Characteristics of the living beings
• Chemistry of living organisms and biological molecules
• prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell: organization of the cell; internal membranes and compartmentalization; organelles, characteristics and functions: nucleus, ribosomes, RER, REL, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton, cell wall, extracellular matrix. Animal and plant cells. Mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts, amyloplasts, chromoplasts) and endosymbiont theory.
• Biological membranes: structure and proposed models; passage of materials across cell membranes: passive transport (facilitated diffusion and simple), osmosis, directly and indirectly active transport, co-transport. Exocytosis and endocytosis. Anchoring, tight and gap cell junctions in animal and plant cells.
• Cell communication: types of cellular communication: endocrine, paracrine, autocrine and iuxtacrine. Sending and receiving the signal.
• Organization of DNA in chromosomes, mitosis and meiosis. DNA and proteins, nucleosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, chromosome condensation. The cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis, meiosis and sexual reproduction
• DNA and its role in heredity. DNA structure and replication.
• Gene expression: transcription, genetic code and translation. Gene definition.
• DNA mutations and mutagenesis
• Hereditary character transmission and Mendel’s laws; definition of phenotype, genotype, locus, gene, dominant and recessive allele, homozygosity and heterozygosity. Segregation and independent assortment. Independence and association. Crossing-over and recombination. Genetic determination of sex. Gene interactions. Incomplete dominance, condominance, multiple alleles, epistasis and polygeny.
• The human genome: karyotype analysis and pedigrees; autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, X-linked diseases
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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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PREPARATORY CHEMISTRY (several notions are included in the basic knowledge required)
1. Atomic structure and periodic properties of the elements: matter composition, atom, atomic particles; atomic theory; quantum numbers, and orbitals; electronic configuration, periodic table and chemical reactivity of the elements; electronic affinity, electronegativity.
2. The chemical bond: molecules and ions; ionic and covalent bond; intermolecular forces; hydrogen bond.
3. Solutions and acid-base reactions: concentration of the solutions, acid-base theories of Arrhenius and Brőnsted-Lowry; hydracids, hydroxides, oxyacids; acid-base reactions; pH and buffer solutions.
4. Organic chemistry notions: carbon atom properties; hybrid orbitals; organic compounds classification: functional groups; hydrocarbons; alcohols, ethers, thiols, amines, aldehydes and ketones; carboxylic acids, esters, anhydrides.

BIOCHEMISTRY
1. Constitutive elements of the living matter: polymeric structure of the biological macromolecules.
2. Protein structure and function: aminoacid classification, buffering power, peptide bond, levels of protein structure; fibrous and globular proteins; hemoglobin and myoglobin: structure, function, factors influencing the oxygen bond; hemoglobin variants; enzymes: classification, role in the chemical reactions, regulation of the enzymatic activity.
3. Vitamins: hydro- and lypo-soluble vitamins; co-enzymes.
4. Bio-energetics: metabolism; chemical transformations in the cell; spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions of the metabolic reactions; ATP as “energy exchange coin”; biologically relevant redox reactions.
5. Carbohydrates structure and metabolism: mono- and disaccharides; polysaccharides; glycoconjugates; glycolysis and its regulation; gluconeogenesis; hints of the penthose phosphate pathway; synthesis of the glycogen.
6. Citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondria; acetyl-CoA synthesis; citric acid cycle control; respiratory chain and electron transport; ATP synthesis.
7. Lipids structure and metabolism: structural lipids and biological membranes; cholesterol; stock-reserve lipids; lipids digestion and fatty acid β-oxydation; keton bodies formation; hints of fatty acids biosynthesis.
8. Aminoacid metabolism: hints of gluco- and keto-forming aminoacids; transamination and oxidative deamination; the urea cycle.

Assessment methods and criteria

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MM: BIOLOGIA APPLICATA E GENETICA
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Written test (multiple choice questions and open-ended questions).
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MM: BIOCHIMICA
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Written test: 10 multiple choice questions (2 points each), plus 2 open questions (0 to 5 points each).

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Raven- Johnson - Mason - Losos – Singer BIOLOGIA CELLULARE 2012
Raven-Johnson - Mason - Losos GENETICA E BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE 2012
A. Fiecchi, M. Galli Kienle, A. Scala Chimica e propedeutica biochimica Edi-Ermes  
Luciano BINAGLIA, Bruno GIARDINA CHIMICA e PROPEDEUTICA BIOCHIMICA (con CD-ROM) Ediz. Mc Graw-Hill  




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