Bachelor's degree in Nursing (to qualify as a nurse) (Verona)

Biomolecular fondamentals of life [Matricole pari] (2016/2017)

Course code
Cristina Bombieri

Teaching is organised as follows:
Unit Credits Academic sector Period Academic staff
BIOCHIMICA 2 BIO/10-BIOCHEMISTRY INF VR - 1° anno 1° sem Massimo Donadelli

Learning outcomes

Understanding the contribution of biological macromolecules to biological organization, functioning of the structures of living organisms and the most relevant aspects of human biology; describe the basic concepts of genetics, genetic diseases and their most common mode of transmission.

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- Organic chemistry: nomenclature of organic compounds and recognition of functional groups. - Carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycogen, starch, cellulose, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and glycoproteins. - Proteins: amino acids, protein structure levels, peptide bond, alpha-helix, beta-sheet, globular protein, myoglobin and hemoglobin, allosteric regulation. - Enzymes: Classification of enzymes, active site, specificity and isoenzymes, cofactors and coenzymes, vitamins, regulation of enzyme activity, allosteric enzymes. - Lipids: lipids and their functions, acylglycerols fatty acids, phospholipids, terpenes, steroids, cholesterol, fat-soluble vitamins, eicosanoids, lipoproteins. - Introduction to metabolism: catabolism and anabolism, ATP and phosphocreatine, coenzymes redox (NAD + and FAD), redox reactions, metabolic pathways, metabolic intermediates, regulating metabolism, coupled reactions, signs of genetic defects of metabolism. - Carbohydrate metabolism: glycolysis and its regulation, pentose phosphate pathway, alcoholic and lactic fermentation, synthesis of acetyl-coenzyme A, oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate, Krebs cycle and its regulation, gluconeogenesis and its regulation, Cori cycle, glycogenolysis and glycogen synthesis, hormone regulation (glucagon, insulin and adrenaline), diabetes mellitus. - Oxidative phosphorylation: mitochondrial respiratory chain, standard reduction potential, electron transport and proton pumps, mitochondrial ATP synthase. - Lipid metabolism: beta-oxidation of fatty acids, ketones, lipid biosynthesis, acid synthase-fat, cholesterol metabolism. - Metabolism of proteins and amino acids: transamination, glucose-alanine cycle, urea cycle, biosynthesis of amino acids, branched chain amino acids.
- Characteristics of the living beings. Origin of life and evolution. - Water: characteristics and biological importance. - Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell. Structure, function and organization of the cell. - Roles and functions of the cell memebrane. Transport of molecules across cell membrane. Cell junctions. - Cell signalling. - Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, cell death. - Organisation of DNA in chromosome. Chromatin and chromosome structure and composition. - DNA: structure, function, replication. Definition of gene. DNA mutation. - Informational pathway: transcription, RNA processing, genetic code, mRNA translation and protein synthesis. - Chromosomes and heredity. Normal and abnormal human karyotypes. - Modes of transmission of hereditary characters and Mendel’s laws. Pedigree drawing. Genetics of blood groups. - Genetic diseases. Somatic mutations and cancer.

Assessment methods and criteria

Written exam including all course modules (multiple choice quiz and open questions) followed by oral discussion. The final evaluation will consider the student’s personal ability to apply notions to the solution/discussion of specific problems.
Students will be examined on the range of topics listed in the syllabus. The assessment involves a written test, to be performed simultaneously to the biochemistry test, consisting of both multiple-choice and open-ended questions. In order to gain access to the biology test, students must have first discharged any training debts relating to the minimum biology knowledge. To pass the exam, students shall demonstrate to possess the comprehension and the knowledge of the topics covered in the course, skills of reasoning and personal re-elaboration of notions, accuracy and ability to focus the argument posed by the open-ended questions responding synthetically, exposing their arguments accurately, with clarity, critical evaluation and using the appropriate scientific language. The test will be considered passed if the student gain a minimum score of 18/30.

Reference books
Author Title Publisher Year ISBN Note
Roberti, Antognelli, Bistocchi, Talesa Biochimica e Biologia per le professioni sanitarie (Edizione 2) McGraw-Hill 2013
Catani et all Appunti di biochimica (Edizione 2) piccin 2017 978-88-299-2843-9
M. Samaja, R. Paroni Chimica e Biochimica Piccin 2016
Solomon, Berg, Martin Elementi di Biologia (Edizione 6) EdiSES 2013
Sadava, Hillis, Craig Heller, Hacker Elementi di Biologia e Genetica (Edizione 5) Zanichelli 2019 9788808820655

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